Presentation on theme: "The End of WWI. The U.S. Enters the War ► By 1917, the Germans announced a policy of Unrestricted Submarine Warfare- sink any ship near Britain. ► The."— Presentation transcript:
The U.S. Enters the War ► By 1917, the Germans announced a policy of Unrestricted Submarine Warfare- sink any ship near Britain. ► The US was neutral at the time and continued trading with Britain, Germany upset. ► 3 American ships were sunk, Pres. Wilson upset.
Zimmerman Telegram ► The British intercepted a telegram to the German ambassador in Mexico. ► Telegram asked Mexico to ally with Germany and start a war with the US to keep them distracted. ► Pres. Wilson was outraged and asked Congress to declare war against Germany (4/2/1917). ► The US joined the side of the Allies
Total War ► WWI was a total war- all aspects of the country were dedicated to the war effort. ► Rationing was a common practice- governments only allowed small amounts of food and supplies to be purchased. ► Propaganda also used to encourage people to support/join the war. ► Women worked the factories to make up for the men being gone.
Russia withdraws from War Civil Unrest due to lack of food, supplies Civil Unrest due to lack of food, supplies Czar Nicholas abdicates throne Czar Nicholas abdicates throne By 1917- 5.5 million casualties By 1917- 5.5 million casualties Communist “Lenin” seizes power & signs a truce with Germany (ends war March 1918) Communist “Lenin” seizes power & signs a truce with Germany (ends war March 1918) Germany can now focus on W. Front Germany can now focus on W. Front With U.S. help, the Central Powers were defeated. With U.S. help, the Central Powers were defeated. 11/9/1918- Armistice signed to end the war. 11/9/1918- Armistice signed to end the war.
Aftermath of WWI ► By the Numbers: Estimated cost $338 billion 8.5 million soldiers died 21 million more wounded Millions of civilians were killed
Aftermath of WWI U.S. 117,000 France1,385,000 Britain 703,000 Russia 1,700,000 Italy 460,000 Germany 1,718,000 Austria H 1,200,000
Effects of WWI ► World War I had four main effects: Millions of lives lost Countries bankrupted by war Land, towns, and villages destroyed “the lost generation”, widespread disillusionment (Insecurity & Despair)
The Allies Meet at Versailles ► On January 18, 1919 the allies met at the Paris Peace Conference. ► 32 countries attended but most of the decisions were made by the “Big Four”: United States- Pres. Wilson France- Georges Clemenceau Great Britain- David Lloyd George Italy- Vittorio Orlando Germany and its allies were not invited.
The Fourteen Points ► Woodrow Wilson’s plan to build a lasting peace in Europe ► The guiding idea behind the plan was popular sovereignty. People would decide for themselves under which government they wanted to live.
The Fourteen Points ► The points: End of secret treaties Freedom of the seas Free trade Reduced army and navy sizes Colonial possessions adjusted with the colonial people in mind Points 6- 13 were specific suggestions for changing borders and creating new nations
The Allies Dictate a Harsh Peace ► Great Britain and France thought the Fourteen Points was too easy on Germany. ► Georges Clemenceau (Premier of France) wanted to punish Germany by dismantling their army and making them pay for the war.
Discussion Question ► What are two reasons that France may have wanted to punish Germany more than the United States did?
The Treaty of Versailles ► The Treaty of Versailles was signed on June 28,1919. ► The treaty had four major provisions:
The Treaty of Versailles Provision #1 ► League of Nations: -International peace organization; membership included Allied nations as well as 32 other ones membership included Allied nations as well as 32 other ones -Germany and Russia were excluded
Treaty of Versailles Provision #2 ► Territorial Losses: Germany had to return Alsace & Lorraine to France. France’s border was extended to the Rhine River. Germany had to give up all of its colonies in Africa and the Pacific.
Treaty of Versailles Provision #3 ► Military Restrictions German army could be no larger than 100,000. larger than 100,000. Germany prohibited from manufacturing or importing weapons or war material. Germany forbidden to build submarines or air force.
Treaty of Versailles Provision #4 ► War Guilt: Sole responsibility for the war was placed on Germany. was placed on Germany. Germany had to pay the Allies $33 billion over 30 years to cover the costs of the war. (a.k.a. war reparations)
The Creation of New Nations ► To split up the central powers, many new countries were created after WWI ► New countries included: Poland Czechslovakia Yugoslavia
A Peace Built on Quicksand ► The U.S. ultimately rejected the Treaty of Versailles ► Many Germans were left with bitterness and hatred ► Instead of building a lasting peace, the stage was set for the second world war