Presentation on theme: "Grandiloquent Dictionary This is the result of an ongoing project to collect and distribute the most obscure and rare words in the English language. It."— Presentation transcript:
Grandiloquent Dictionary This is the result of an ongoing project to collect and distribute the most obscure and rare words in the English language. It also contains a few words which do not have equivalent words in English. At present, the dictionary contains approximately 2700 words, though it is constantly growing. Your task is to look at the small selection of words and see if you can use one of these words in the course of today’s lesson. Make a note of the one(s) you want to use.
Grandiloquent Dictionary bacillophobia - ( ) A fear of germs barathrum - ( ) A person who eats like they were a bottomless pit battology - ( ) Tiresome and repetitive talking beldam - ( ) A foul old woman maledicent - ( ) One who is addicted to abusive speech maledictaphobia - ( ) Fear of bad words misosophist - ( ) One who hates all wisdom or learning saponaceous - ( ) 2. Being very nice and ingratiating schadenfreude - ( ) Taking pleasure in the misfortunes of others simphobia - ( ) The fear of speaking straight forwardly and in simple terms
Language Change and Linguistic Methods AO1: what we need to consider English Lexicon as words enter and leave the language or change meanings Syntax between earlier and later forms of English Phonology of spoken English and its representation in written texts Graphology (including typography and orthography); how texts are arranged on a page, font styles and their punctuation and spelling Discourse structure and the organisation of texts This is our focus today!
Lexical Change There are 10 examples of how new words can be created. How many of the 10 can you identify / remember? Please fill in your ideas on the table.
Lexical Change TermDefinitionExample CoinageThe creation of completely new words. Very few words enter the language like this. ? BorrowingWhen words are taken from other languages Soprano (italian), prince (french), lager (german), alcohol (arabic) Affixing Prefixing and suffixing When existing words are used to create new words, e.g. Prefixes include ‘micro’ and ‘multi’ Examples of affixes include ‘-ism’
Lexical Change TermDefinitionExample CompoundingWhen words are combined to form a new larger word or expression. Blackbird, laptop, blue-eyed, head waiter, happy hour, size zero, carbon footprint BlendingTwo words are fused to create one Smog, motel, wannabes ConversionWhen the word class of an existing word changes creating a new use for a word Noun to verb: ‘bottle’ to ‘to bottle’ Verb to noun ‘a ‘contest’
Lexical Change TermDefinitionExample AbbreviationA new word is formed by shortening an existing word Ad rather than advert Burger rather than hamburger Back formationCreating a new word by removing affixes Editor becomes edit Burglar becomes burgle adj. "couth" from "uncouth" AcronymsWords are created from the initial letters of existing words NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organisation
Lexical Change TermDefinitionExample InitialismsWords are shortened using their initial letters. However, words are not formed. BBC –British Broadcasting Company CD – compact disc Words from names - Eponyms Some words are created based on names of people or places Sandwich – the Earl of Sandwich created the sandwich Hoover
So what is Lexical Change? Imagine that you are chatting to a Year 11 student who is currently writing their Spoken Language Controlled Assessment. How would you explain Lexical Change to them? Write down in no more than 100 words what you would tell them.
Classification of word formation Using the diagram (circles), the headings and the words, decide which categories you would place each example in. One term you might not be sure of …. a functional shift occurs when a word that is already identified and used extensively in one manner begins to acquire a second use that is of a completely different nature in both the spoken and the written word.
Looking more closely at borrowings 1.What countries do you think the underlined words have come from? (there are 19 different countries represented) 2.Group the words into semantic fields to help you consider: 3.Why do you think English needed to borrow these particular words? 4.Can you make any connections with the reasons for language change we looked at in previous lessons?
Looking more closely at borrowings Should I wear a poncho, an anorak or my favourite parka when I went out on the ski slope? I packed some clothing and chocolate in my knapsack. My enjoyment of tobogganing was curtailed after I kamikazed into the igloo which was obstructing my path. The anonymous owner was absent but his tattooed neighbour suggested a pow-wow. Fearing he was a cannibal or an assassin, I fled. I trekked back to my hotel and as zero hour approached, I decided some food would cheer me up greatly. What should I choose? If it had been breakfast I would have chosen marmalade and coffee, but it was evening and my mouth watered for sushi, tortilla, moussaka or a shish kebab. Strangely I also fancied a cup of tea and some sherbert. I changed into my dungarees and went to where the barbeque was being held. Next holiday I will go on a safari or kayak down a river, or go on a cruise. I thought about lying on a hammock in the sun, although I don’t like mosquitoes. After eating I changed into my pyjamas and strummed on my guitar. Source for the words used: David Crystal ‘The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language 2003
Poncho, hammock, mosquito, guitar, tortilla Spain or South America marmaladePortugal Anorak, parka, igloo, kayak Artic region / InuitShish kebab, sherbertTurkey Dungarees, pyjamas IndiaSushi, kamikazeJapan Ski NorwayTeaChina Chocolate FranceSafari, trekkedAfrica Knapsack, cruise HollandBarbeque, cannibalCaribbean Tobogganing CanadaTattooedPolynesia Anonymous, Moussaka GreeceAssassinEygpt Pow-wow North AmericaZero, coffeeArabic origin
But as words enter the English Language…. Others become archaic or obsolete Twerpchumpnitwitbird-brain twitclotbarmpotpea- brainWally What would you call someone ‘thick’ when you were at first school? Would you use the same word / phrase now? What is your current word?
What word must we preserve? Last lesson we thought about words that we would love to see disappear from the English Language. Today I would like you to identify the word that you would hate to see leave the English Language. Please consider and be ready to share your answer with the rest of the class.
Good newspaper articles http://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/201 3/jul/17/thank-you-fell-out-of-fashion http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/culturene ws/8850281/Drat-Spiffing-old-words-dying- out-soz.html