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Etymology terms.

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Presentation on theme: "Etymology terms."— Presentation transcript:

1 Etymology terms

2 Euphemism A word or phrase that is considered less offensive or less vulgar than the one it replaces “she passed away today”

3 Colloquial language Everyday language; usually applies to the spoken word

4 Cognates Words formed by combining the roots of 2 different languages

5 Blend words Words that blend two already defined words: for example, “smog” (smoke+fog) or “jazzercise” (jazz music + exercise)

6 Hybrids A word which etymologically has one part derived from one language, and another part from another language Ex: bioluminescence Greek “bios” meaning “living” + Latin “lumen” meaning “light”

7 linguistics Study of the origins and structure of human language
Sub-disciplines include evolutionary linguistics, historical linguistics, sociolinguistics, psycholinguistics, and neurolinguistics

8 semantics Study in the historical change in the meaning of words – how language conveys meaning For example, the sentence “Colorless green ideas sleep furiously.” is well-formed in word order, but makes no sense! Or “A student met every professor.” A different student, or the same student?

9 Word component Part of a word, such as the root

10 Abstract word A word not perceived by the five senses
Ex: love, success, freedom, good, moral , democracy, and any –ism (chauvinism, Communism, feminism, racism, etc.)

11 Clipped words New words that are shortened forms of existing words (for example, “cab” which was clipped from “cabriolet,” which was a one-horse carriage with 2 seats and a folding top)

12 analogy The process of connecting information from one subject to another particular subject Example: Milk : Cow :: Egg : Chicken Analogies have been discussed since classical antiquity by philosophers, scientists, and lawyers!

13 inflection Alteration of a word to indicate different grammatical and syntactical relations

14 jargon Specialized expressions native to a particular field, subculture, or region

15 affix Word element attached to a root word
Can be a prefix, suffix, combined form, or infix (“infix” is a word inserted within the base form)

16 acronym Word formed from the initial letters or groups of letters of words in a phrase or series of words Examples: MADD (Mother’s Against Drunk Driving), NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)

17 Apheresis and aphesis Removal of a letter, syllable, or unaccented vowel from the beginning of a word, such as “coon” for “racoon” or “till” for “until”

18 Romance languages Comprise all the languages derived from Latin, the language of ancient Rome 6 most common: Spanish, Portuguese, French, Italian, Romanian, and Catalan (the official language of Andorra, a small country in southwestern Europe)

19 infusion Process by which words are introduced into another language

20 doublet Words in different languages derived from the same root
Ex: “shirt” and “skirt” both Germanic, the first Old English, the second Old Norse Ex: “chief” and “chef” both from French (at different times)

21 Loan words A word borrowed from one language and incorporated into another Ex: “hors d’oeuvre” or “détente”

22 Abbreviations notes dim. = diminutive, a word used to convey a slight degree of the word meaning, smallness of the object, intimacy, or endearment (such as behaving like or talking to children)

23 Abbreviations notes cont’d
eccl. = ecclesiastical Meaning a word associated with the church var. = variant, meaning it differs from another word in form only, being of the same essence/substance

24 Abbreviations notes cont’d
vulgar = Vulgar Latin, meaning dialects of Latin spoken after the fall of the Roman Empire (in other words, nonstandard) as opposed to classical Latin (standard)

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