Presentation on theme: "Types of Stylistics Linguistic Stylistics Literary Stylistics"— Presentation transcript:
1 Types of Stylistics Linguistic Stylistics Literary Stylistics studies the devices in language of literary texts (such as rhetorical figures and syntactical patterns) that are employed to produce expressive or literary style.is synonymous to literary criticism. Literary criticism rests solely on subjective interpretation of texts.To decipher message
2 Features of Linguistic Stylistics “Stylistic analysis in linguistics refers to the identification of the patterns of usage in speech and writing” (Widdowson, Stylistics)Let us discuss some linguistic features for in-depth stylistic analysis.
3 1. Phonological Level1. Phonological level: (Sounds) Phonology studies the combination of sounds into organized units of speech. Though phonology is considered to be the superficial level of language, there are some aspects of it such as tone which contribute to the meaning of an utterance.
4 1.Phonological Level : Example “Their stanzas of stifling scandalsCause the masses to curse” (Dasylva: “Songs of Odamolougbe”Alliteration, deliberate selection of sounds, repetition,Meaning: sinister, evil, corruption of Nigerian politicians
5 2.Graphological LevelGraphology means the arrangement of words, the appearance of the text on a page.E.g. use of capitalization, or avoiding it, overemphasis on punctuationEmily Dickenson : Use of punctuation—Dashese e cummings : ignores capitalization
6 Example: Graphological Level On the wrinkled face of the hillsi see my shortening shadowas my sun creeps towards the west hillsgently, gently, gentlylike afternoon’s flame loweringTo ash in the eveningExample: Graphological LevelUshi’s “Hill Song”
7 3. Lexical level Lexis is the total number of word forms Words may be repeatedSynonyms or similar words may be usedHyponymy, anaphora,e.g. Vegetation: grass, leavesVerbal repetition, use of pronouns,
8 Example: Lexical Level I looked upon the rotting seaAnd there the dead men layI looked upon the rotting deckAnd there the dead men lay (Coleridge, “Rime of the Ancient Mariner”)
9 4. Syntactic LevelConcerned with the arrangement of the words in a sentence. It also attempts to describe how these elements function in the sentence.Studies description of rules of positioning of words in a sentence.Involves rules of positioning of elements in a sentence, such as nouns, verbs, adverbs etc
10 Syntactical Level: Example E. g. “Home he went”“home” occurs in the beginning of the sentence to foreground it.“Something there is that doesn’t love a wall” Robert Frost, “Mending Wall”
11 5. Semantic LevelSemantics deals with the level of meaning in language. E.g. how words similar or different are related.Tries to give account of both word and sentence meaning
12 Semantic Level: Example e.g. The writer has penned down his ideas with extreme brevity.I see squeaking Cleopatra boy my greatness….(Shakespeare)
13 6.Morphological levelMorphology: study of the smallest grammatical units of language and their formation into words. It studies how the words are formed. e.g. what their grammatical forms are, how the system of gender, number, plural etc. function and why the words forms change.e.g. e e cummings use of prefix “un”“Unlove’s the heavenless hell” “ unlove” “unhate” “manunkind”“Darkness eats a distance birdfully”
14 7.Discourse LevelInter-sentencial links that form a connective or cohesive text.Relationship between sentencese.g. use of connectives such as: and, though, also, but.repetition of pronouns, definite articles
15 Discourse level: Example When I consider how my light is spent Ere half my days in this dark world and wide, And that one talent which is death to hide Lodg’d with me useless through my soul more bent.
16 Features of Linguistic Stylistics Phonology MorphologyGraphology DiscourseLexisSyntaxSemantics
17 Example NO LEFT TURN A road side sign Imperative mode Capital letters Implied “there is”