Bina Nusantara University 2 LEARNING OUTCOMES At the end of the meeting, students are able to Describe the word classes and give example of each word class Explain the different types of word formation such as acronyms, abbreviation, compounding.
Bina Nusantara University 3 OUTLINE –Word Classes Adjective, verb, preposition, noun, determiner Pronoun, adverb, conjunction, exclamation –Word Formation Compounding Acronyms Back formation Abbreviation/Clipping Blends
Bina Nusantara University 4 Definition of word There are four implied meaning of ‘word’: Orthographic word : one which has a space on either side of it. Morphological word : consider the form not meaning Lexical word: various forms of items which are closely related by meaning. Semantic word: involves distinguishing between items which may be morphologically identical but differ in meaning. Example: The words : takes, taking, taken, take and took have 5 orthographic words, 5 morphological words, 1 lexical word, 1 semantic word.
Bina Nusantara University 5 Word Classes According to its functions, word can be divided into: Noun : the name of a person, animal, concept or thing. Determiner : adjective like word which precedes both adjectives and nouns Pronoun: word that can replace a noun or a noun phrase Adjective: a descriptive word that qualifies and describe nouns Verb: a word that expresses an action Adverb : a word that is used to modify a verb, an adjective, a sentence or another adverb
Bina Nusantara University 6 Word Classes Preposition : function words which are always followed by a noun, a noun phrase, or a pronoun. Conjunction : a joining word, divided into coordinating conjunction and subordinating conjunction. Exclamation : involuntary utterance expressing fear, pain, surprise. Also called ‘interjection’ if it is monosyllabic utterance.
Bina Nusantara University 7 Word Formation 1.Compounding The combination of two or more existing words to create a new word. E.g. street light, blue bird, high chair bookcase 2. Affixation Prefix – the addition to the front of the base E.g. play – re-play Suffix – the addition to the back of the base E.g. use – useful
Bina Nusantara University 8 Word Formation 3. Clipping/Abbreviation the process of shortening the polysilabic word by deleting oie or more syllables E.g. hamburger – burger Professor – prof 4. Acronym Forming a word by taking the initial letters (some or all) the word in the phrase or title and pronouncing them as a word. E.g. UNICEF, NASA. AIDS
Bina Nusantara University 9 Word Formation 5. Back Formations The forming of new word because of an incorrect morphological analysis of the already existing words. For example the word ‘hawk’ is derived from ‘hawker’; ‘edit’ from editor 6. Blends Two words are combined to produce blend. It is similar to compounding but parts of the words are deleted. For example: ‘smog’ is from smoke + fog; ‘motel’ is from motor + hotel.