Presentation on theme: "The Geography of Iran Iranian Oil Resources Dr. Mohammad Mossadegh, Prime Minister of Iran Became Prime Minister in 1951. Nationalized the foreign."— Presentation transcript:
Dr. Mohammad Mossadegh, Prime Minister of Iran Became Prime Minister in 1951. Nationalized the foreign oil companies. Got rid of corrupt military officials. Was toppled in a coup aided by the America CIA in 1953. The Shah of Iran returns to power. Q4
Shah Reza Pahlavi (r. 1941 – 1977) Institutes Western reforms & ties with the West. But, the majority of his people live in poverty. Brutal suppression of dissidents SAVAK Q5
The Shah & Wife, Farah Iranian elite/upper- and intellectual classes: very pro-Western.
“The White Revolution” The Shah’s Reform Program (1963) Land reform – 90% of Iran’s peasants became landowners Massive government-financed heavy industry projects. Granted women more political power – the right to vote. Poured government money into education – especially in rural areas where illiteracy was very high. Profit-sharing for industrial workers. Nationalization of forests and pasture lands.
Reasons for the Fall of the Shah The Shah spent the oil profits for top of the line American military hardware. Little money to reinvest back into the Iranian economy. Religious leaders angry with the Shah for too much “Westernization.” Government corruption. The Shah’s constitutional violations of the basic human rights of his citizens.
Anarchy & Revolution The Shah leaves Iran on 1/16/79
Ayatollah Khomeini Leads the Revolution Khomeini returns to Iran on February 11, 1979 Q7
Ayatollah Khomeini (r. 1979-1989) 1902 – 1989 Became an Islamic scholar (studied in Qom). Began to speak out against the Shah in the 1960s. Arrested and imprisoned several times by the Shah. Deported in 1978 & went to France.
Triumphant Muslim Clerics & Iranian Soldiers Q8 A theocracy is created
Key Points II: The Counter-revolutionaries of the Global Age The advance of global culture and capitalism has met local resistance in some parts of the world from those seeking to preserve their cultures from unbridled change. Religious revivalism has been a global phenomenon since the 1970s. Religious fundamentalism has become the most important cause of domestic insurgency and international terrorism in many parts of the world. As the cold war came to an end, a discourse was led by Samuel Huntington that suggested that a ‘clash of civilizations’ was about to become the principal cause of international conflict. Huntington highlighted the tension that existed between Western and Islamic culture. From ‘Ch.21’, Baylis and Smith (ed.) The Globalization of World Politics (2ed.)
Key Points III: The Counter-revolution at the Civilizational level: the Case of Islam The impact of the West has been the principal issue facing Islamic civilization since the eighteenth century. Muslim modernizers sought to imitate the West, and the secular nation- state was adopted. The secular state went on to fail in much of the Middle East. A deep crisis of modernization exists in many Muslim societies. Poor living conditions and few opportunities for improvement have created a young and frustrated urban population. Islam remains a powerful cultural force in the Muslim world, especially in the Middle East. When secular states faltered, Islam began to re-establish itself at the heart of political culture. From ‘Ch.21’, Baylis and Smith (ed.) The Globalization of World Politics (2ed.)
Key Points IV: Islamic fundamentalism Twentieth century modernization produced widespread social alienation in the Muslim societies. Political Islam filled a political and social vacuum. Theological innovations allowed an Islamic revival in the 1970s that sought to enforce an Islamic state and a rigorous code of Islamic law (sharia). The Iranian Revolution of 1978-79 provided a powerful example to all Islamic revivalists.
Key Points IV: Islamic fundamentalism cont... Revivalist Islam identified a cultural conflict with the West. A crescendo of Islamic violence appeared to substantiate the notion that there was a conflict between the West and Islam. The Islamic revival embodies different perspectives. Islamic revivalists are divided over the means to achieve an Islamic order. From ‘Ch.21’, Baylis and Smith (ed.) The Globalization of World Politics (2ed.)
Key Points Key Points V: The future of Islam in the Global Age The increasing engagement of Middle Eastern societies with the global economy since the 1970s deepened some of the social problems that produced the Islamic revival. Islamic movements have been suspicious of global culture and capitalism, but the pressures to be pragmatic are strong. The Iranian Revolution is a good example of how political and economic realities can force compromise on Islamists. Islam does not have a single voice. Muslims will meet the forces of globalization in different ways. Muslim societies will continue to change in the 21 st century. From ‘Ch.21’, Baylis and Smith (ed.) The Globalization of World Politics (2ed.)