Presentation on theme: "Conflict in the Middle East Key Middle Eastern States."— Presentation transcript:
Conflict in the Middle East Key Middle Eastern States
Islamic Fundamentalism In the 1970’s Muslims began to oppose westernization. They wanted to return to the Islamic ways to solve the problems of their countries.
Libya Muammar al-Qaddafi takes control in Bases his government on Islamic principals. Supports revolutionary and terrorist activities around the world.
Algeria 1992 the Algerian Islamic does well in elections. Fear of the country becoming Islamic causes the military to take power and restrict Islamic activities.
Turkey Turkey has based it’s government on western models. In the 1990’s Islamic parties have made gains in Turkey. There is a strong push to return to the Islamic traditions.
Egypt Egypt & the Suez Canal - the canal is a strategic waterway linking western Europe to the east including access to the rich oil fields of the Middle East The British and French essentially controlled the waterway until the 1956 Suez Crisis and the second Arab-Israeli war
Egypt Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser ordered troops to seize the canal and Israeli troops with European military support quickly took back the strategic waterway Under rising Cold War political pressure from the US and the USSR, Israeli troops pulled out ending the Suez Crisis and leaves Egypt in control of the canal
Egypt’s Independence After Egypt became independent after WWII Gamal Abdel Nasser became president. Nasser installed a socialist government –Nationalized banks –Land reforms by giving peasants farms –Businesses came under government control. Egypt obtained help from the Soviet Union
Egypt’s Independence Anwar Sadat was Nasser’s successor. –Sadat ended hostilities with Israel. (Camp David Accords) –Encouraged foreign investments in Egypt –Opened up a market economy. –Sadat was assassinated in Hosni Mubarak the current President faces the problems of a growing population and criticism from the Islamic community for not following stricter Islamic traditions.
Iran In the 1950's, the Shah of Iran (king) Reza Pahlavi had launched a series of westernizing, modernizing and secularizing reforms for Iran with support from the United States In 1979, he fled and went into exile and replaced by the Islamic fundamentalist leader, Ayatollah Khomeini
Iran Khomeini led history's first modern Islamic revolution essentially turning Iran from a modernizing secular nation back into a Islamic state based on strict Islamic law and tradition Some of the impacts were. –Banning all western books, movies and music –Strict adherence to the Muslim religion –Rights taken away from women –Encouraged other Muslim countries to overthrow their governments.
Iran The Ayatollah Khomeini led an anti-west, anti-American campaign that led to the capture of the American Embassy in Tehran taking 60 hostages and held them for 444 days before being released. Iran's continues to have conflict with secular neighbor Iraq over border disputes (Iraq) and religious differences. After Khomeini’s death in 1989 moderate leaders took control of Iran.
Iraq Saddam Hussein former leader. Under Hussein Iraq has been involved in several Middle Eastern conflicts.
Iraq Iran-Iraq War –In 1980 Hussein took control of the disputed boarder of Iran and Iraq. –Both sides went to war from 1980 to –Both sides began to attack oil shipments and the U.S. sent the navy to the Persian Gulf to protect shipping. –Millions died on both sides with little accomplishment from the war.
Iraq Persian Gulf War –In 1990 Iraq invaded Kuwait and seized the oil fields. –The U.S. states saw Iraq as a threat to other Middle Eastern countries (Saudi Arabia) but also oil production.
Iraq The U.S. response –Formed a trade embargo against Iraq. –Peacekeeping troops were sent to Saudi Arabia. –Iraq was told to get out of Kuwait
Iraq Iraq refused to leave Kuwait In 1991 The Persian Gulf War began and the U.S. and their allies quickly won.
Iraq After the war Hussein was seen as a dangerous dictator. To end the embargos Iraq was told to destroy all nuclear,biological and chemical weapons. Iraq did not comply with all the request and threw inspection teams out of the country. Iraq was also linked to supporting terrorist groups. In 2003 Hussein was overthrown.
Lebanon Lebanon after WWII became a thriving commercial center. Christians and Muslims lived together. In 1967 Palestinians displaced from Israel moved into Lebanon and became a home base for the PLO. In 1975 Christians and the Muslims began a civil war.
Lebanon Both Syria and Israel became involved in the war. The UN also became involved but withdrew in By 1990 fighting lessened and 1992 a truce was signed. Syria and Israel still become involved in outburst of violence in Lebanon.
Lebanon In 1983 part of the UN peacekeeping force were the U.S. Marines. 241 Marines were killed in a building when a suicide bomber with a car bomb blew up the building.