Presentation on theme: "The Geography of Iran Iranian Oil Resources Shah Reza Pahlavi After WWII, Iran’s leader (1941-1951) Believes in embracing Western government and Western."— Presentation transcript:
The Geography of Iran
Iranian Oil Resources
Shah Reza Pahlavi After WWII, Iran’s leader ( ) Believes in embracing Western government and Western oil industries Remember: pro-Western
Dr. Mohammad Mossadegh, Prime Minister of Iran Became Prime Minister in Nationalized the foreign oil companies. Was toppled in a coup aided by the America CIA in The Shah of Iran returns to power. Q4
Shah Reza Pahlavi (r – 1977) Institutes Western reforms & ties with the West. But, the majority of his people live in poverty. Brutal suppression of dissidents SAVAK Q5
SAVAK The Shah’s secret police Had extensive help from American CIA In operation from Tortured and executed political prisoners “Most hated and feared institition”
The Shah & His Wife, Farah Iranian elite/upper- and intellectual classes: very pro-Western.
“The White Revolution” The Shah’s Reform Program (1963) Land reform – 90% of Iran’s peasants became land owners. Massive government-financed heavy industry projects. Granted women more political power – the right to vote. Poured government money into education – especially in rural areas where illiteracy was very high. Nationalization of forests and pasture lands.
Reasons for the Fall of the Shah The Shah spent the oil profits for top of the line American military hardware. Little money to reinvest back into the Iranian economy. Religious leaders angry with the Shah for too much “Westernization.” Government corruption. The Shah’s constitutional violations of the basic human rights of his citizens.
The Shah’s Chief Opponents? Oil field workers. Students and other intellectuals. Middle class businessmen. Iranian nationalists. Muslim clerics. Q6
Anti-American Pin (1960s)
Iranian Students Protest in Beverley Hills
Anarchy & Revolution The Shah leaves Iran on 1/16/79.
Ayatollah Khomeini Leads the Revolution Khomeini returns to Iran on February 11, Q7
Ayatollah A religious leader in Iran Supreme leader Highest ranking official and religious authority in Iran
Ayatollah Khomeini (r ) Became an Islamic scholar Began to speak out against the Shah in the 1960s. Arrested and imprisoned several times by the Shah. Deported in 1978 & went to France. Hated the US. Wanted all Muslims to overthrow secular governments
Triumphant Muslim Clerics & Iranian Soldiers Q8 A theocracy is created!
Theocracy “the rule of God” A government ruled by or subject to religious authority
SAVAK Suspects Taken
The Fate of the Shah’s Generals Charged With: Corruption on Earth
American Embassy in Tehran Taken Over Q9
52 Americans Held Hostage for 444 Days!
Hostage Crisis Seizure of the US embassy in Tehran by students unhappy with the US for admitting the Shah for medical treatment 1979 Failed rescue attempt in 1980 Finally freed after Reagan becomes President
52 American Hostages Released in Jan., 1981
The Iran-Iraq War ( ) Q10
The Iran-Iraq War: Taking Sides
Iraqi Soldiers At the Front 375,000 Iraqi casualties & 60,000 POWs!
Iranian Soldiers Q11 Over 1,000,000 Iranian casualties!
War Iraq invades Iran in 1980 Border disputes, political disputes Khomeini called for the overthrow of Hussein US secretly gives aid to both sides (afraid of a Communist takeover in Iran)
Khomeini’s Death (June, 1989)
Iranian Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei
Ayatollah Khatami The Ayatollah is considered a political moderate. Q12
Another Nuclear Power? US satellite photo of Iranian nuclear facility near Arak.
An American view of Iranian nuclear power PINOCCHIAYATOLLAH Scott Stantis (Birmingham News) 1/28/05
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad Current leader of Iran (2005-present) Photos suggest he was a hostage taker… Iran denies this Outspoken critic of the US, Britain, and Israel Nuclear program for peaceful purposes?