3Middle East Religions and Ethnic Groups Most people are MuslimThere are also Christians, and Jews in IsraelMost countries have large ethnic or religious minoritiesThe Kurds are an example of an ethnic minorityKurds live in Iran, Iraq, Syria, and TurkeyKurds have been frequently discriminated against
5IsraelThe Holocaust created worldwide support for a Jewish homeland after World War IIIn 1947, the UN drew up a plan to divide Palestine into an Arab and a Jewish stateArabs rejected the plan; Jews accepted the planIn 1948, Jews proclaimed the independent state of IsraelArab countries sent their armies to crush Israel beginning in 1948Arabs believe that all of the land belongs to them
6UN Partition PlanIsrael has fought four wars against her Arab neighbors in 1948, 1956, 1967, 1973, and other minor conflicts since Israel declared statehood in In each war, Israel’s military has successfully defeated the Arab countries. The goal of the Arab countries is to destroy and wipe Israel off the map. Israel, since 1948, has concluded peace treaties with Egypt and Jordan. Insurgents (rebels) still launch rockets from the Gaza Strip and Syria.
7Israel (continued)The wars between Arabs and Israel forced 700,000 Palestinians from their homesThe Arab countries invited many Palestinians to join the fight to destroy Israel after Israel declared independence in 1948After Israel defeated the Arabs, the Arab countries refused to accept the return of the PalestiniansMany Palestinians become refugees and demand their own countryDespite the ongoing conflicts, Israel has developed rapidly due to a skilled workforce and a modern democracyKibbutzim work on what is called a kibbutz, or collective farm (Mr. Tilles lived on a kibbutz in the 1970s)
9Resources and Religion Resources and religion have led to conflicts in the Middle EastThe Middle East has the world’s largest oil and gas reservesConsequently, it has strategic importance because the world operates on petroleumSome Middle Eastern countries have adopted secular, or non-religious, government and laws
11Resources and Religion However, many Muslim leaders argue that a renewed commitment to Islamic doctrine is neededIn Iran and Saudi Arabia, women are required to wear hejab, the traditional Muslim garmentsMany Islamic countries make their laws based on Islamic doctrine and beliefs. These countries are secular (religious). Iran and Saudia Arabia are two examples of secular countries. These two countries are anti-democratic.
12Egypt Most populous Arab country in North Africa Egypt controls the Suez CanalUnder Gamal Abdel Nasser, Egypt fought two unsuccessful wars against IsraelNasser wanted to nationalize (control) the Suez CanalNasser’s successor, Anwar Sadat, made peace with IsraelIslamists were angry about government corruption and the failure to end povertyIn 1981, Muslim fundamentalists assassinated Sadat
14EgyptNasser, the Egyptian leader, wanted to nationalize (control) the Suez Canal, a vital waterway that links the Mediterranean Sea with the Red Sea.
15IranIn Iran, Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi ruled with the support of the United States, which helped oust one of his opponents, Mohammad MosaddeqThe shah’s secret police terrorized criticsIn the 1970s, the shah’s enemies rallied behind Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, a radical Islamic clericRadical Iranian, anti-American students stormed and overtook the U.S. embassy in Tehran, Iran (1979)Protests forced the shah into exile, and Khomeini established an Islamic theocracy, or government ruled by religious leaders
16Ayatollah KhomeiniA radical Islamic cleric who became the leader of Iran following the Islamic Revolution and ouster of the Shah (king).
19Saudi Arabia Has the world’s largest oil reserves The location of Islam’s holy city (Mecca) is located in Saudia ArabiaKings from the Sa’ud family have ruled Saudi Arabia since the 1920sFundamentalist Muslims have criticized Saudi Arabia’s close ties to Western nations like the USASome opponents have adopted violent tactics that threaten to disrupt the Saudi oil industry
21Powerpoint Questions (16 points) 1. What is the dominant religion in the Middle East?2. What two other religions originate and exist in the Middle East? (2 points)3. What discriminated ethnic group resides in Iran, Iraq, Turkey, and Syria?4. What was the U.N. plan in 1947 toward Palestine?5. In what year did Israel proclaim itself a state?6. What is a kibbutz?
22Powerpoint Questions (16 points) 7. What natural resource does the Middle East have?8. Another word for non-religious is ???9. What are Muslim women required to wear?10. What body of water flows through Egypt?11. Who was the Egyptian leader who wanted to nationalize the Suez Canal?
23Powerpoint Questions (16 points) 12. What Egyptian leader was assassinated by Muslim fundamentalists?13. What is a theocracy? Explain.14. What Iranian leader established a theocracy in Iran?15. What country has the world’s largest oil reserves?