Dr. Mohammad Mossadegh, Prime Minister of Iran Became Prime Minister in 1951. Took control the foreign oil companies. Got rid of corrupt military officials. Was taken out of power by the America CIA in 1953. The Shah of Iran returns to power. Q4
Shah Reza Pahlavi (r. 1941 – 1977) Institutes Western reforms & ties with the West. But, the majority of his people live in poverty. Brutal punishments of oppo n ents SAVAK Q5
The Shah & His W i fe, Farah Iranian elite/upper- and educated classes: very pro-Western.
“The White Revolution” The Shah’s Reform Program (1963) Land reform – 90% of Iran’s peasants became land ow n ers. Massive government-financed heavy industry (factories, etc) projects. Granted women more political power – the right to vote. Poured government mo n ey into education – especially in rural areas where illiteracy was very high.
Reasons for the Fall of the Shah The Shah spent the oil profits for top of the li n e American military hardware. Little mo n ey to reinvest back into the Iran. Religious leaders angry with the Shah for too much “Westernization.” Government corruption (lying, cheating, stealing). The Shah’s constitutional violations (torturing, killing oppo n ents) of the basic human rights of his citizens.
Anarchy & Revolution The Shah leaves Iran on 1/16/79.
Ayatollah Khomeini Leads the Revolution Khomeini returns to Iran on February 11, 1979. Q7
Ayatollah Khomeini (r. 1979-1989) 1902 – 1989. Became an Islamic scholar. Began to speak out against the Shah in the 1960s. Arrested and impriso n ed several times by the Shah. Deported in 1978 & went to France.
Triumphant Muslim Clerics & Iranian Soldiers Q8 A theocracy is created!
A “Shah” in the Waiting? Reza Pahlavi (III), 43 year-old son of the deposed Shah.
BibliographyBibliography “23 Year Pictorial History of Iran.” http://home.att. n et/~iranshahr/ http://home.att. n et/~iranshahr/ “Iranian.com.” www.iranian.com/Revolution/war.html.www.iranian.com/Revolution/war.html “Iran Hostage Anniversary.” CBS News. www.cbs n ews.com/stories/2001/01/18/ iran/main265244.shtml. www.cbs n ews.com/stories/2001/01/18/iran/main265244.shtml