Kennedy Takes Office Group of White House advisers – Young – Well educated – Experts in their field – Friends-not government people Cabinet – More experienced – More well known/respected – Background in the government
Cuban Missile Crisis Kennedy Vs. Castro Bay of Pigs – Cuban exiles – Failure U.S. puts nuclear missiles in Turkey. Soviet Union puts nuclear missiles in Cuba. U.S. naval blockade around Cuba Soviet Union withdraws Nuclear Missiles.
The Berlin Crisis Khrushchev wished to test the new president Problem for the Soviets – East Berliners defecting into West Berlin. Soviets positioned troops in East Berlin to demonstrate a potential armed takeover of the city
Berlin Wall JFK answers by bringing US troops into West Berlin. Khrushchev orders the construction of a wall separating the two cities.
LBJ’s Resume Congressional Staffer Member of the House of Representatives -Age of 28 -Served 11 years U.S. Senator Majority Leader -after 1 year Vice-President
Johnson keeps Kennedy’s Agenda Keeps cabinet members and advisers Speaks to congress asking to them to pass Kennedy’s bills that had been blocked for so long.
“The Johnson Treatment” Reputation of being “overpowering and intimidating” Invaded personal space: nose to nose “persuasive and personable rather than elegant and charming” Glencoe American History text p.855
War on Poverty “There are tens of millions of Americans who are beyond the welfare state. Taken as a whole there is a culture of poverty…bad health, poor housing, low levels of aspiration, and high levels of mental distress. Twenty percent of a nation, some 32,000,000.” Michael Harrington, author of the Culture of Poverty 1962 -Kennedy wanted to go above and beyond -1964 State of the Union Speech a. Johnson declares a “War on Poverty”
The War on Poverty Jobs Corps Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA) Head Start
Economic Opportunity Act -Job Corps -Vista Office of Economic Opportunity(OEO) Tax Cuts – Tax Reduction Act – Feb. 1964 – Economy grows by 10%, unemployment declines, and tax revenue actually increases Civil Rights – Civil Rights Act of 1964
The Results 486-52 landslide win for Johnson -Goldwater said Great Society was communist -wanted to use nuclear weapons on Vietnam
Creating a Great Society “The Great Society rests on abundance and liberty for all. It demands an end to poverty and racial injustice.” LBJ 1964 Medicare – care for people over 65 Medicaid – help for the poor with free health care Education: 1. Elementary and Sec. Educ. Act – aid to public schools 2.Higher Education Act - scholarships to college students 3.Head Start – preschool for poor children HUD (Robert Weaver) – Promote better life – ex. Highway Beautification Act -
Warren Court Chief Justice – Earl Warren – Extended individual rights/freedoms 1. Brown v. Board of Education(1954) 2. Baker v. Carr(1962) 3. Westberry v. Sanders(1954) 4. Reynolds v. Sims (1964) 5. Mapp v. Ohio (1961) 6. Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) 7. Escobedo v. Illinois (1964) 8. Miranda v. Arizona (1966)
The Warren Court Mr. Bach United States History
Chief Justice Earl Warren Also headed the Warren Commission that investigated the assassination of JFK Most members chosen by FDR or Ike (liberal and moderate presidents)
Liberal Praise Expanded the rights of the accused Declared segregation to be unconstitutional Expanded federal power Firmly separated Church and State
Conservative Criticism Undermined traditional American institutions Made law enforcement more difficult Increased criminal behavior in the U.S. Destroyed states’ rights
Gideon v. Wainwright (9-0) Counsel must be provided by state governments to defendants who cannot pay for their own attorneys
Escobedo v. Illinois (5-4) Citizens have a right to counsel during police interrogations
Miranda v. Arizona (5-4) Evidence obtained prior to individual being informed of rights is inadmissible in court Miranda Rights
Mapp v. Ohio (6-3) Evidence obtained in violation of Fourth Amendment provisions is not admissible in court
Terry v. Ohio (8-1) A routine “frisk” is not an unreasonable search Officer safety Evidence seized during a routine “frisk” by police is admissible in court
Engel v. Vitale (6-1) Schools cannot require the recitation of a prayer Later related rulings No prayer at graduation No moment of silence No student-led prayer at athletic events
Tinker v. Des Moines (7-2) Student speech and expression can only be censored if it interferes with the operation and educational mission of the school district.
Later (not Warren Court) similar influential decisions
New Jersey v. T.L.O. (6-3) School officials are not held to the same standards as law enforcement for searches School’s interest in maintaining discipline outweighs student’s individual rights
Hazelwood v. Kuhlmeier (5-3) Students identified in relation to divorce and teen pregnancy School newspapers are not forums for student expression but are extension of school curriculum Can be censored by school administrators
Bethel v. Fraser (7-2) Student speech of a pornographic or obscene nature can be censored as it defeats the mission of the school district
21 st Century – Internet Speech? Students can criticize teachers online as long as it is done off- campus, is not threatening, and does not cause a classroom disturbance (Tinker Test) Issues in constant flux? Cyberbulling? Sexting?