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Kennedy and the Cold War Mr. Brink Hudson High School United States History 19.1.

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Presentation on theme: "Kennedy and the Cold War Mr. Brink Hudson High School United States History 19.1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Kennedy and the Cold War Mr. Brink Hudson High School United States History 19.1

2 1960 Presidential Election Senator John F. Kennedy (Democrat) Vice President Richard M. Nixon (Republican)

3 Senator John F. Kennedy Came from a wealthy Massachusetts family Roman Catholic (concerned American Protestants) Young and Charismatic (43 years old)

4 Vice President Richard Nixon Came from a modest California family Raised a Quaker Linked to the older Eisenhower administration

5 1960 Presidential Debate Television helped enhance the charismatic qualities of Kennedy versus Nixon

6 1960 Presidential Debates

7 1960 Presidential Election Kennedy = 49.7%; Nixon = 49.6%

8 Kennedy Takes Office Group of White House advisers – Young – Well educated – Experts in their field – Friends-not government people Cabinet – More experienced – More well known/respected – Background in the government

9 Flexible Response

10 Peace Corps

11

12 Cuban Revolution Guerrilla Leader Fidel Castro overthrows US- supported Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista in 1959.

13 Castro Turns to Communism Castro started to seize private businesses (including American owned) on the island. Made overtures to the Soviet Union and made anti- American speeches.

14 Cuban Trade Soviet Union opens up a trade agreement with Cuba. President Eisenhower had cut off all trade with Cuba.

15 Assassination Attempts CIA with Mafia hitmen try to assassinate Castro (including an attempt with an exploding cigar)

16 CIA Training for Invasion Cuban Exiles trained by CIA to invade Cuba and overthrow Castro JFK gives the go- ahead for the invasion

17 Air Strike Problems Old US Bombers piloted by Cuban Exiles used to destroy Cuba’s air force (fails) Exposes US connection to invasion

18 Land Invasion Disaster Bay of Pigs land invasion fails Castro alerted by air strikes Cuban Exiles given no air support Are captured and tortured

19 Results Castro strengthens his ties to Khrushchev for protection

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21 Kennedy’s Greatest Failure

22 Cuban Missile Crisis Kennedy Vs. Castro Bay of Pigs – Cuban exiles – Failure U.S. puts nuclear missiles in Turkey. Soviet Union puts nuclear missiles in Cuba. U.S. naval blockade around Cuba Soviet Union withdraws Nuclear Missiles.

23 Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)

24 Cuban Missile Crisis

25 Global Thermal Nuclear War ?

26 Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)

27 The Berlin Crisis Khrushchev wished to test the new president Problem for the Soviets – East Berliners defecting into West Berlin. Soviets positioned troops in East Berlin to demonstrate a potential armed takeover of the city

28 Berlin Wall JFK answers by bringing US troops into West Berlin. Khrushchev orders the construction of a wall separating the two cities.

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30 Berlin Wall

31 Post-War Germany

32 Kennedy's Thousand Days US History 19.2

33 JFK was always displayed in photos as active/physical. -even though he had Addison’s disease -constant pain, he would fatigue easily

34 Welcome to Camelot JFK’s presidency represented American hope for the future The President and First Lady had tremendous charisma

35 Camelot

36 The New Frontier Civil Rights Advocacy Middle-Class Tax Cut, Keynesian Economics War on PovertySpace Race

37 “The Moon Shot” Kennedy gives NASA and the US a mission with his “moon shot” speech in Invigorates NASA and stimulates interest in science in the US.

38 JFK Moon Shot speech

39 Mercury Seven

40

41 Dallas – November 22, 1963 President John F. Kennedy First Lady Jackie Kennedy Texas Governor John Connally First Lady of Texas Nellie Connally

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43 Dealey Plaza – The Most Famous Crime Scene

44 The Lone Assassin Lee Harvey Oswald – Former Marine – Communist Sympathizer

45 Oswald Shot By Jack Ruby

46 Warren Commission Created to investigate the assassination 10 month investigation Was it a conspiracy? They say Oswald and Ruby acted alone. Many still believe it is a conspiracy to this day.

47 A New President

48 Funeral for a President

49 The Great Society US History 19.3 Mr. Brink

50 LBJ’s Resume Congressional Staffer Member of the House of Representatives -Age of 28 -Served 11 years U.S. Senator Majority Leader -after 1 year Vice-President

51 Johnson keeps Kennedy’s Agenda Keeps cabinet members and advisers Speaks to congress asking to them to pass Kennedy’s bills that had been blocked for so long.

52 “The Johnson Treatment” Reputation of being “overpowering and intimidating” Invaded personal space: nose to nose “persuasive and personable rather than elegant and charming” Glencoe American History text p.855

53 War on Poverty “There are tens of millions of Americans who are beyond the welfare state. Taken as a whole there is a culture of poverty…bad health, poor housing, low levels of aspiration, and high levels of mental distress. Twenty percent of a nation, some 32,000,000.” Michael Harrington, author of the Culture of Poverty Kennedy wanted to go above and beyond State of the Union Speech a. Johnson declares a “War on Poverty”

54 The War on Poverty Jobs Corps Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA) Head Start

55 Economic Opportunity Act -Job Corps -Vista Office of Economic Opportunity(OEO) Tax Cuts – Tax Reduction Act – Feb – Economy grows by 10%, unemployment declines, and tax revenue actually increases Civil Rights – Civil Rights Act of 1964

56 The 1964 Election

57 “The Daisy Ad”

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59 The Results landslide win for Johnson -Goldwater said Great Society was communist -wanted to use nuclear weapons on Vietnam

60 Creating a Great Society “The Great Society rests on abundance and liberty for all. It demands an end to poverty and racial injustice.” LBJ 1964 Medicare – care for people over 65 Medicaid – help for the poor with free health care Education: 1. Elementary and Sec. Educ. Act – aid to public schools 2.Higher Education Act - scholarships to college students 3.Head Start – preschool for poor children HUD (Robert Weaver) – Promote better life – ex. Highway Beautification Act -

61 Health Care Medicare Medicaid

62 The Great Society National Public Radio (NPR) Public Broadcasting System (PBS) National Endowment for the Arts Public Housing

63 Great Society

64 Rachel Carson 1962 – Wrote “Silent Spring” –Described impact of pesticides on plants, animals and people –Claimed people were impacting the environment Public Shocked!!!

65 Decline of Great Society Johnson making too many changes too fast - Congress passed 181 of 200 major bills Republicans gained 47 seats in House and 3 seats in Senate. – 1966 midterm election

66 Johnson’s Foreign Policy Increasing involvement in Vietnam Johnson Doctrine – Latin America Soviet-US Relations – Ban of weapons in outer space Pueblo Incident – North Korea

67 The Destruction of LBJ’s Presidency

68 Warren Court Chief Justice – Earl Warren – Extended individual rights/freedoms 1. Brown v. Board of Education(1954) 2. Baker v. Carr(1962) 3. Westberry v. Sanders(1954) 4. Reynolds v. Sims (1964) 5. Mapp v. Ohio (1961) 6. Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) 7. Escobedo v. Illinois (1964) 8. Miranda v. Arizona (1966)

69 The Warren Court Mr. Bach United States History

70 Chief Justice Earl Warren Also headed the Warren Commission that investigated the assassination of JFK Most members chosen by FDR or Ike (liberal and moderate presidents)

71 Liberal Praise Expanded the rights of the accused Declared segregation to be unconstitutional Expanded federal power Firmly separated Church and State

72 Conservative Criticism Undermined traditional American institutions Made law enforcement more difficult Increased criminal behavior in the U.S. Destroyed states’ rights

73 Gideon v. Wainwright (9-0) Counsel must be provided by state governments to defendants who cannot pay for their own attorneys

74 Escobedo v. Illinois (5-4) Citizens have a right to counsel during police interrogations

75 Miranda v. Arizona (5-4) Evidence obtained prior to individual being informed of rights is inadmissible in court Miranda Rights

76 Mapp v. Ohio (6-3) Evidence obtained in violation of Fourth Amendment provisions is not admissible in court

77 Terry v. Ohio (8-1) A routine “frisk” is not an unreasonable search Officer safety Evidence seized during a routine “frisk” by police is admissible in court

78 Engel v. Vitale (6-1) Schools cannot require the recitation of a prayer Later related rulings No prayer at graduation No moment of silence No student-led prayer at athletic events

79 Tinker v. Des Moines (7-2) Student speech and expression can only be censored if it interferes with the operation and educational mission of the school district.

80 Later (not Warren Court) similar influential decisions

81 New Jersey v. T.L.O. (6-3) School officials are not held to the same standards as law enforcement for searches School’s interest in maintaining discipline outweighs student’s individual rights

82 Hazelwood v. Kuhlmeier (5-3) Students identified in relation to divorce and teen pregnancy School newspapers are not forums for student expression but are extension of school curriculum Can be censored by school administrators

83 Bethel v. Fraser (7-2) Student speech of a pornographic or obscene nature can be censored as it defeats the mission of the school district

84 21 st Century – Internet Speech? Students can criticize teachers online as long as it is done off- campus, is not threatening, and does not cause a classroom disturbance (Tinker Test) Issues in constant flux? Cyberbulling? Sexting?


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