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Kennedy and the 1960s Chapter 18.

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1 Kennedy and the 1960s Chapter 18

2 Election of 1960 -Two men run in the 1960 election.
1. Vice President Richard Nixon (Rep.) 2. John Fitzgerald Kennedy (Dem.) -Sept. 26, The Two candidates hold 1st of four televised debates. -Those who watched felt JFK won. -Those who listened on radio felt Nixon won. -Kennedy wins by narrow margin. -Enters office without a Mandate -Wish list from the people -Requests of new President -Kennedy administration becomes known as Camelot.

3 John F. Kennedy

4 Richard M. Nixon

5 Kennedy Nixon Debate

6 Kennedy’s 3 major goals -Had 3 major goals: 1. Economy
-JFK tried to stop business from raising prices. (Inflation) and tried to cut taxes -Both failed 2. Poverty and Inequality -Raised minimum wage -Passed 24th Amendment -Outlawed poll taxes which was preventing African Americans from voting in the South.

7 3. Space Program -Kennedy increased funding to new government agency: NASA -National Aeronautics and Space Administration -Planned to send a man into space in 1959 -Called Mercury Program -Fails to occur in 1959

8 Mercury Program

9 Russian Space Program -April 1961, USSR beats U.S. into space when Yuri Gagarin becomes the first human in space. -May 5th 1961, U.S. sends Alan Shepard into orbit. -After this event, Kennedy promises to land a man on the moon by the end of the decade

10 Yuri Gagarin

11 Kennedy’s Main Policies:
1. Limited Test Ban Treaty: -U.S. and USSR agree not to test nuclear weapons above ground. 2. Peace Corps: -Sent volunteers to developing nations -Helped with education, health care, business -Began in 1961 -Still in existence today

12 3. Vietnam: -Kennedy wanted to stop the spread of Communism, but felt Vietnam was not working hard enough to stop Communism itself. -U.S. sends 16,000 military advisors to S. Vietnam -Also sent money to S. Vietnam -At first, LBJ does not want to go to war in Vietnam. -By 1965, LBJ changes his mind and begins to send in 1st U.S. troops.

13 Bay of Pigs -Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) was training Cubans to overthrow Fidel Castro. -Castro was Communist and U.S. did not want Communism in W. Hemisphere. -Invasion takes place on April 17, 1961. -Complete failure. -U.S. loses great deal of respect in the world. -Publicly, Kennedy takes the blame -Privately, Kennedy blames CIA. -Promises to break up the CIA.

14 Berlin Wall -August 1961, USSR builds a wall in Berlin separating E. and W. Berlin. -Prevents E. Germans from escaping to W. Germany -Creates huge conflicts again between U.S. and USSR

15 East Berlin DMZ West Berlin

16 Cuban Missile Crisis -October 16, 1962, a U-2 spy plane from the U.S. takes pictures of Cuba. -Shows Soviet made nuclear missiles being built. -Puts U.S. on full alert; highest during peace time. -Kennedy’s two choices were to bomb Cuba or blockade Cuba. -On October 22, 1962, Kennedy tells the U.S. people about the missiles in Cuba. -Kennedy chooses to set up the blockade. -Closest to nuclear war that the U.S. ever was. Russian Premier Nikita Khrushchev agrees to remove missiles if Kennedy agrees not to invade Cuba and if U.S. removes missiles from Turkey. -Kennedy agrees and ends the crisis.


18 Kennedy Assassination
-Nov. 22, 1963, JFK visits Dallas, TX. -While riding in a limo with Texas Governor John Connally, JFK is shot in the throat and head. -JFK dies on route to the hospital. -Vice President Lyndon Baines Johnson is sworn in as President. -Prime Suspect is Lee Harvey Oswald. -Oswald is killed by Jack Ruby outside of Dallas police station. -Leaves open the possibility of a conspiracy to kill the President.

19 Dealey Plaza

20 Oswald’s window


22 Governor John Connally

23 Lee Harvey Oswald

24 Oswald Ruby

25 Jack Ruby

26 The Warren Commission -To study the assassination, President Johnson creates the Warren Commission. -Committee headed by Supreme Court Chief Justice Earl Warren to study assassination. -Main piece of evidence is film by Abraham Zapruder. -Films assassination -Commission finds Oswald was “Lone Assassin.” -Begins major controversy that still lives today.

27 Zapruder Film YouTube - JFK Zapruder Film
YouTube - JFK Zapruder Film Closeup JFK Assassination Digitally Remastered

28 Lyndon B. Johnson After Kennedy’s assassination, Lyndon Baines Johnson (LBJ) takes over. -Begins his plan for America called Great Society. -Civil rights -Tax Cuts -Eliminate poverty -Health care for elderly -LBJ uses Great Society to win his own election in 1964.



31 Johnson’s Goals -After election, LBJ passes 5 major laws.
1. Economic Opportunity Act Govt. money to aid illiteracy, unemployment, & social services. 2. Volunteers in Service to America(VISTA) Volunteers help in poor communities. 3. Elementary & Secondary Education Act Gives govt. money to schools based on the # of low income children. 4. Medicare & Medicaid Hospital & low cost insurance to those over 65. Medicaid was assistance to poor of any age for health insurance. 5. Immigration Act of 1965 Eliminated quotas per country towards immigration. Said 170,000 people per year can come into U.S. from E. Hemisphere. 120,000 per year from W. Hemisphere.

32 Supreme Court Rulings:
Mapp vs. Ohio 1961 -Creates the Exclusionary Rule -Evidence taken in an illegal search can not be used in court. Gideon vs. Wainwright 1963 -Suspects who could not afford an attorney had the right to free legal aid. Escobedo vs. Illinois 1964 -If a suspect asks for an attorney, the interview must stop and an attorney given. Miranda vs. Arizona 1966 -Suspect must be given his or her rights before being questioned. -Right to remain silent. -Right to an attorney. -Anything said will be used against them.

33 You have the right to remain silent
You have the right to remain silent. Anything you say can and will be used against you in a court of law. You have the right to be speak to an attorney, and to have an attorney present during any questioning. If you cannot afford a lawyer, one will be provided for you at government expense. OR You have the right to remain silent and refuse to answer questions. Do you understand? Anything you do say may be used against you in a court of law. Do you understand? You have the right to consult an attorney before speaking to the police and to have an attorney present during questioning now or in the future. Do you understand? If you cannot afford an attorney, one will be appointed for you before any questioning if you wish. Do you understand? If you decide to answer questions now without an attorney present you will still have the right to stop answering at any time until you talk to an attorney. Do you understand? Knowing and understanding your rights as I have explained them to you, are you willing to answer my questions without an attorney present?

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