2 Do Now How many bones are in a adult human The two divisions of the human SkeletonThree types of muscleVoluntary and examplesThe types of JointsWith examplesWhat is the difference betweenTendonsLigamentsCartilageMuscles.
3 Get out your notebook. What is Locomotion? Do Now 2/3: Get out your notebook.What is Locomotion?
6 In humans, locomotion involves the interaction of: 1. Bones2. Cartilage3. Muscles4. Tendons5. Ligaments
7 36-1a The Skeleton: Support the body protects of body (internal) organsAnchorage and Leverage for musclesStores mineral reservesBone marrow produces blood cells
8 Parts of the Skeleton 206 total Bones Axial Skeleton: skull/cranium, spinal column/backbone, ribs and the breastbone/sternumAppendicular Skeleton: arms, legs,scapula, clavicle, pectoral and pelvic girdles.
9 36-1b Structure of Bones Composed mainly of calcium Made up of living bone cells and connective fiber tissuePeriosteum: Hard outer layerHaversian Canals: network of tubes that contain blood vessels and nerveOsteocytes: mature bone cells
10 Bone Marrow Found in hollow cavities of bone These hollow cavities are known as the Haversian canalsProduce:*red blood cells*white blood cells*platelets
11 The Structure of Bone Figure 36-3 Spongy bone Compact bone PeriosteumBone marrowHaversian canalOsteocyteArteryVein
16 OssificationThe process by which cartilage gradually changes into boneEx: In humans, the skeleton of an embryo is made up of mostly cartilage. By adulthood, most of this cartilage changes into bone by the process of ossification
36 Antagonistic Pairs Muscles work as opposites Ex: 1. Bicep contracts then triceps relaxes2. Triceps contracts then the bicep relaxes
37 SummaryWhen the bicep contracts, the arm bends upward (flexes) and therefore the bicep is known as a flexorWhen the triceps contracts, the arm extends outward and therefore the triceps is known as an extensor
38 Smooth Muscle Smooth and not striated in appearance Involuntary (cannot move)Found in:-walls of digestive organs-walls of arteries and veins-walls of internal organs
45 FACT:Investigated football injuries among children and adolescents, and the findings have been remarkably consistent:* 40% of all football injuries are from sprains and strains ** 25% from contusions (bruises)*** 10% from fractures****the remainder primarily from concussions and dislocations.These percentages are fairly constant throughout a variety of age ranges. Distribution tends to be quite consistent:*50% involve lower extremities*30% involve upper extremities.
58 Hip dislocationsThe most common cause is motor vehicle collisions (6). The typical mechanism is thought to be due to an unrestrained, front seat occupant of the vehicle striking their knee against the dashboard at the time of a sudden deceleration.
61 TreatmentTreatment of an ACL injury begins with proper recognition of the injury. There are still a few times when an ACL tear is misdiagnosed. Rehabilitation begins immediately after the injury. Initial rehab should include ice, gentle knee motion, quad setting, straight leg raising, and protected weight bearing. The worst thing that can be done is to not move or use the knee. When the ACL ruptures, the knee fills with blood, becomes stiff and painful. Gentle motion will help to milk the blood out of the joint to improve pain and function. When the knee is not moved the blood in the joint becomes clotted and sets up like Jell-O. When this occurs, motion becomes more painful and the removal of the blood takes longer.
62 Torn ACLIf the knee joint has been injured, we loose the ability to perform these functions properly. In the case of the ACL tear, the knee will feel unstable, and give out. The old phrase “Trick Knee” is most often associated with and ACL-deficient knee. When walking or climbing, the knee will suddenly “give out,” usually to the side, and the individual falls to the ground.
63 RehabilitationThe early phase of the recovery is protected to guard against the new ligament pulling loose from the screws that hold it in place. As with any fracture, the bone hole must fill in with new bone before the rehab can become too aggressive. This process takes about six weeks.The second six weeks of the controlled rehab revolves around more complex activities. The activities include complex balance, lateral motion, and greater strength. Activities such as slide board, a progressive running program, one-leg leg press, and balance with very unstable footing can be used.Near three months post-op the controlled rehab ends, and the patient continues rehab on his/her own. It is very important to continue strengthening the leg during this time. Between three and six months the repaired ACL is at its weakest point. During the first three months the tissue has very limited blood supply and is degrading. The body slowly brings the new blood vessels into the area but not fast enough to stop the degradation process. The athlete must be aware of this so that he/she does not re-tear the ACL. Rehab should continue while avoiding cutting and pivoting.
64 SurgeryThe surgical treatment for ACL ruptures can be performed in one of three ways. One method of repair is to use a patellar bone-tendon-bone graft. This technique utilizes the middle one-third of the patellar tendon with an attached piece of bone from the patella and tibia. This bone-tendon-bone graft is then used to replace the damaged ligament. Another surgical method utilizes a graft taken from the hamstring tendons. The hamstring tendon is used to replace the torn ACL in the same manner. The third surgical procedure utilizes a patellar bone-tendon-bone graft from a cadaver donor. This procedure is most often used in people who have returned from a previously reconstructed ACL. In all three of these procedures, drill holes are made in the Tibia and Femur where the ACL originates. The new ligament is passed through the holes and held in place with interference screws.
65 Bones #1Cranium: houses and protects the brain..
66 Bone #2Backbone- consists of 33 bones called vertebrae
67 Bone #3Vertebrae: are separated from each other to by discs of cartilage.
68 Bones #4Pectoral Girdle: consists of the shoulder blades and collar bones. It connects the arms and spine.
69 Bone #5Hip bones: are the same as pelvic bones.
70 Bones #6Chest cavity: the area enclosed by the sternum , ribs and backbone.
71 Bones #10Pelvic Girdle: is made up of the hip bone or pelvic bones , and connects the legs and spine.
79 Boo Hoo Mr. Rizzo is going to be out….. What is a Hallux Rigidus?What is a Cheilectomy?
80 Hallux RigidusHallux Rigidus is a degenerative-type arthritis condition that affects the large joint at the base of the great toe. A degenerative arthritis is a condition which results from wear and tear on the joint surface over time. The condition may follow an injury to the joint or, in some cases, may arise without a well defined injury.
81 What could happen????In some cases, bone spurs form on the top of the joint and can bump together when the big toe bends upward, or extends. This causes a problem when walking, because the big toe needs to bend upward when the foot is behind the body, getting ready to make the next step. The constant irritation when the bone spurs bump together leads to pain and difficulty walking.
86 Cheilectomya procedure that simply removes the bone spurs at the top of the joint so that they don't bump together when the toe extends. This allows the toe to bend better and reduces the amount of pain with walking.
88 Cutting out the bone spur. This is a rated “G” surgery.
89 Holy Toe !!!!! Drilling into the bone to develop future cartilage.
90 The good stuff!!!! Surgery To perform a Cheilectomy, an incision is made along the top of the joint. The bone spurs that are blocking the joint from extending are identified and removed - from both the bones that make up the joint. A little extra bone may be taken off to ensure that nothing rubs when the Hallux is raised. The skin is closed and allowed to heal.
91 Rest and Recuperation!!! Ice and Elevate for 48 hours Watch my soaps Eat Ice cream, lots of Ice CreamPlay on the computerDo nothing but be lazy