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. . Do Now 1.How many bones are in a adult human 2.The two divisions of the human Skeleton 3.Three types of muscle Voluntary and examples 4.The types.

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Presentation on theme: ". . Do Now 1.How many bones are in a adult human 2.The two divisions of the human Skeleton 3.Three types of muscle Voluntary and examples 4.The types."— Presentation transcript:

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3 . Do Now 1.How many bones are in a adult human 2.The two divisions of the human Skeleton 3.Three types of muscle Voluntary and examples 4.The types of Joints With examples 5.What is the difference between TendonsLigamentsCartilageMuscles

4 Get out your notebook. What is Locomotion?

5 Chapter 14 Human Locomotion

6 Chapter 14 Human Locomotion

7 In humans, locomotion involves the interaction of: 1. Bones 2. Cartilage 3. Muscles 4. Tendons 5. Ligaments

8 36-1a The Skeleton: 1.Support the body 2.protects of body (internal) organs 3.Anchorage and Leverage for muscles 4.Stores mineral reserves 5.Bone marrow produces blood cells

9 Parts of the Skeleton 206 total Bones Axial Skeleton: skull/cranium, spinal column/backbone, ribs and the breastbone/sternum Appendicular Skeleton: arms, legs,scapula, clavicle, pectoral and pelvic girdles.

10 36-1b Structure of Bones Composed mainly of calcium Made up of living bone cells and connective fiber tissue Periosteum: Hard outer layer Haversian Canals: network of tubes that contain blood vessels and nerve Osteocytes: mature bone cells

11 Bone Marrow Found in hollow cavities of bone These hollow cavities are known as the Haversian canals Produce: *red blood cells *white blood cells *platelets

12 Spongy bone Compact bone Periosteum Bone marrow Haversian canal Compact bone Spongy bone Osteocyte Artery Vein Periosteum Figure 36-3 The Structure of Bone

13 Bone

14 Skull Sternum Ribs Vertebral column Metatarsals Metacarpals Phalanges Clavicle Scapula Humerus Radius Pelvis Ulna Carpals Femur Patella Fibula Tibia Tarsals Phalanges Axial Skeleton Appendicular Skeleton The Skeletal system

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17 Ossification The process by which cartilage gradually changes into bone Ex: In humans, the skeleton of an embryo is made up of mostly cartilage. By adulthood, most of this cartilage changes into bone by the process of ossification

18 Ossification

19 (II) Cartilage Unlike bone, cartilage is flexible and elastic Found at joints, nose, and ear Absorbs shock

20 Do Now.

21 Bones Label the diagram

22 Joints Where bone meets bone in an organism

23 Types of Joints 1.Immovable joint 2.Ball-and-socket joint 3.Hinge joint 4.Gliding joint

24 Ball-and-Socket Joint Hinge Joint Pivot Joint Saddle Joint Clavicle Ball-and- socket joint Scapula Humerus Femur Patella Hinge joint Tibia Fibula Humerus Radius Pivot joint Ulna Metacarpals Carpals Saddle joint Figure 36-4 Freely Movable Joints and Their Movements Section 36-1

25 Muscle Tendon Femur Patella Bursa Ligament Synovial fluid Cartilage Fat Fibula Tibia Figure 36-5 Knee Joint Section 36-1

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27 Immovable Joint Bones that are tightly fitted together

28 Ball-and-Socket Joint Can move in all directions

29 Ball-and-Socket Joint

30 Hinge Joint Permits back and forth motion

31 Gliding Joint Provides limited flexibility in all directions

32 Do Now 2/9 What are the Three types of muscle?

33 (III) Muscles Three types of muscle: Skeletal muscle Smooth muscle Cardiac muscle

34 Skeletal Muscle Voluntary (can be controlled) Involved in locomotion Attached to bone Striated in appearance (striped) Function as antagonistic pairs

35 Skeletal Muscle

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37 Antagonistic Pairs Muscles work as opposites Ex: 1. Bicep contracts then triceps relaxes 2. Triceps contracts then the bicep relaxes

38 Summary When the bicep contracts, the arm bends upward (flexes) and therefore the bicep is known as a flexor When the triceps contracts, the arm extends outward and therefore the triceps is known as an extensor

39 Smooth Muscle Smooth and not striated in appearance Involuntary (cannot move) Found in: -walls of digestive organs -walls of arteries and veins -walls of internal organs

40 Smooth Muscle

41 Cardiac Muscle Found only in the heart Striated in appearance Involuntary

42 Cardiac Muscle

43 Found only in the heart Striated in appearance Involuntary

44 (IV) Attachments 1.Ligaments- connect bone to bone 2.Tendons- connect muscle to bone

45 Tendon

46 FACT: Investigated football injuries among children and adolescents, and the findings have been remarkably consistent: * 40% of all football injuries are from sprains and strains ** 25% from contusions (bruises) *** 10% from fractures ****the remainder primarily from concussions and dislocations. These percentages are fairly constant throughout a variety of age ranges. Distribution tends to be quite consistent: *50% involve lower extremities *30% involve upper extremities.

47 The Knee

48 Schematic view of a dislocation of the patella

49 Apprehension Test

50 The Knee

51 Torn ACL

52 Muscles Specialists

53 Locomotion Hokey Pokey Tibia/fibula in Get Ready Tibia/fibula out Tibia/fibula in

54 (V) Disorders of Locomotion 1.Arthritis- inflammation of the joints Osteo: Rheumatoid: 2.Tendonitis- inflammation of a tendon, usually where it is attached to the bone

55 (V) Disorders of Locomotion Sprains:???? Strains:?????

56 (V) Disorders of Locomotion Replacement Surgeries:Knee

57 Replacement Surgeries: hip

58 Hip dislocations

59 The most common cause is motor vehicle collisions (6). The typical mechanism is thought to be due to an unrestrained, front seat occupant of the vehicle striking their knee against the dashboard at the time of a sudden deceleration.

60 Da End!

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62 Treatment Treatment of an ACL injury begins with proper recognition of the injury. There are still a few times when an ACL tear is misdiagnosed. Rehabilitation begins immediately after the injury. Initial rehab should include ice, gentle knee motion, quad setting, straight leg raising, and protected weight bearing. The worst thing that can be done is to not move or use the knee. When the ACL ruptures, the knee fills with blood, becomes stiff and painful. Gentle motion will help to milk the blood out of the joint to improve pain and function. When the knee is not moved the blood in the joint becomes clotted and sets up like Jell-O. When this occurs, motion becomes more painful and the removal of the blood takes longer.Rehabilitation

63 Torn ACL If the knee joint has been injured, we loose the ability to perform these functions properly. In the case of the ACL tear, the knee will feel unstable, and give out. The old phrase “Trick Knee” is most often associated with and ACL-deficient knee. When walking or climbing, the knee will suddenly “give out,” usually to the side, and the individual falls to the ground. ACL tear

64 Rehabilitation The early phase of the recovery is protected to guard against the new ligament pulling loose from the screws that hold it in place. As with any fracture, the bone hole must fill in with new bone before the rehab can become too aggressive. This process takes about six weeks. The second six weeks of the controlled rehab revolves around more complex activities. The activities include complex balance, lateral motion, and greater strength. Activities such as slide board, a progressive running program, one-leg leg press, and balance with very unstable footing can be used. Near three months post-op the controlled rehab ends, and the patient continues rehab on his/her own. It is very important to continue strengthening the leg during this time. Between three and six months the repaired ACL is at its weakest point. During the first three months the tissue has very limited blood supply and is degrading. The body slowly brings the new blood vessels into the area but not fast enough to stop the degradation process. The athlete must be aware of this so that he/she does not re-tear the ACL. Rehab should continue while avoiding cutting and pivoting.

65 Surgery The surgical treatment for ACL ruptures can be performed in one of three ways. One method of repair is to use a patellar bone- tendon-bone graft. This technique utilizes the middle one-third of the patellar tendon with an attached piece of bone from the patella and tibia. This bone-tendon-bone graft is then used to replace the damaged ligament. Another surgical method utilizes a graft taken from the hamstring tendons. The hamstring tendon is used to replace the torn ACL in the same manner. The third surgical procedure utilizes a patellar bone-tendon-bone graft from a cadaver donor. This procedure is most often used in people who have returned from a previously reconstructed ACL. In all three of these procedures, drill holes are made in the Tibia and Femur where the ACL originates. The new ligament is passed through the holes and held in place with interference screws.

66 Bones #1 Cranium: houses and protects the brain..

67 Bone #2 Backbone - consists of 33 bones called vertebrae

68 Bone #3 Vertebrae: are separated from each other to by discs of cartilage.

69 Bones #4 Pectoral Girdle: consists of the shoulder blades and collar bones. It connects the arms and spine.

70 Bone #5 Hip bones: are the same as pelvic bones.

71 Bones #6 Chest cavity: the area enclosed by the sternum, ribs and backbone.

72 Bones #10 Pelvic Girdle: is made up of the hip bone or pelvic bones, and connects the legs and spine.

73 Skulls:

74 Skeletons

75 Do Now 1/16: Grab a scan-tron Get out you index cards from Chapter 14: Locomotion

76 Skeletons 2

77 Muscle pictures

78 More muscles Cardiac muscles is found in the heart. Tendons: skeletal muscles are attached to the bones by strong fibers connective tissue. Extensor:when the triceps muscle extend the joints.

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80 Boo Hoo Mr. Rizzo is going to be out….. What is a Hallux Rigidus? What is a Cheilectomy?

81 Hallux Rigidus Hallux Rigidus is a degenerative-type arthritis condition that affects the large joint at the base of the great toe. A degenerative arthritis is a condition which results from wear and tear on the joint surface over time. The condition may follow an injury to the joint or, in some cases, may arise without a well defined injury.

82 What could happen???? In some cases, bone spurs form on the top of the joint and can bump together when the big toe bends upward, or extends. This causes a problem when walking, because the big toe needs to bend upward when the foot is behind the body, getting ready to make the next step. The constant irritation when the bone spurs bump together leads to pain and difficulty walking.

83 What does a bone spur look like?

84 Ouch Shoes Hurt!!!

85 Lets see those X-rays, Please Normal Damaged Goods How can we fix Mr. Rizzo’s foot?

86 .... MR. RIZZO..... TOE

87 Cheilectomy a procedure that simply removes the bone spurs at the top of the joint so that they don't bump together when the toe extends. This allows the toe to bend better and reduces the amount of pain with walking.

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89 Cutting out the bone spur. This is a rated “G” surgery.

90 Holy Toe !!!!! Drilling into the bone to develop future cartilage.

91 The good stuff!!!! Surgery To perform a Cheilectomy, an incision is made along the top of the joint. The bone spurs that are blocking the joint from extending are identified and removed - from both the bones that make up the joint. A little extra bone may be taken off to ensure that nothing rubs when the Hallux is raised. The skin is closed and allowed to heal.

92 Rest and Recuperation!!! Ice and Elevate for 48 hours Watch my soaps Eat Ice cream, lots of Ice Cream Play on the computer Do nothing but be lazy


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