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Skeletal System Functions: 1) Supports body

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Presentation on theme: "Skeletal System Functions: 1) Supports body"— Presentation transcript:

1 Skeletal System Functions: 1) Supports body
2) Protects internal organs 3) Provides for movement 4) Stores mineral reserves 5) Provides a site for blood cell formation

2 Skeletal System Has 206 bones Divided into two sections:
1) Axial: skull, vertebral column, ribs, and sternum 2) Appendicular: all other bones

3 Structure of Bones Bones are living tissue!!
Periosteum – tough layer of connective tissue surrounding bone Compact bone – beneath the periosteum (dense but not solid) Haversian canals– tubes that run through compact bone and contain blood vessels and nerves

4 Structure of Bones Spongy bone – inside outer layer of compact bone
Osteocytes – digest away old bone Osteoclasts – maintain healthy bone Osteoblasts – make new bone


6 3-D Section of Bone Tissue

7 Bone Homeostasis 1.Most of our skeleton is constantly being broken down, and built back up 2.Amount of bone built up = amount of bone broken down 3.This balance of breakdown and buildup is called bone homeostasis

8 Bone marrow – soft tissue center of bone
Maintains the balance of minerals Serves as a storage for minerals (Ca, P) Two Types: 1) Yellow – made mostly of fats, aids in Red Blood Cell (RBC) production 2) Red – produces RBCs, white BC, and cells to help clotting

9 Skeletal Development The skeleton of the embryo is made of cartilage
Bone begins to replace cartilage by 9th week of development (known as ossification)

10 Joints Joints – where two or more bones meet Most allow movement
Some are fixed (no movement): skull

11 Pelvis, Sexual Dimorphism

12 Types of Joints Five types:
Ball and socket: allows rotational movements (shoulder, hip) Ball and Socket Movement

13 Types of Joints, Cont’d 2) Pivot: bones twist against each other (atlas and axis of your vertebrae) Pivot Joint in Arm

14 Types of Joints Cont’d 3) Hinge: back and forth movements much like a door (elbow, knee)

15 Types of Joints 4) Gliding: bones slide against each other (wrist)
5) Saddle: Freely moveable joint found only in the thumb

16 Joint support Ligaments: bands of tissue that connect bone to bone
Surrounds joints with wide range of motion and little skeletal support Cartilage: covers bone ends and allows for smooth movement. Can also be found in joint to provide cushion (meniscus) Bursa: sacs of fluid that act as shock absorbers Tendons: bands of tissue that connect muscle to bone (patella tendon, Achilles)

17 Problems with Skeletal System - Breaks
Complete/Incomplete (Greenstick) Displaced Simple/Compound (breaks skin) Impacted or Comminuted Spiral Hairline

18 Breaks - Complete & Displaced

19 Breaks - Incomplete/Greenstick

20 Breaks - Spiral

21 Breaks - Compound

22 Breaks - Comminuted

23 Breaks - Hairline

24 Osteoporosis

25 Problems with Skeletal System -Rheumatoid arthritis
Inflammation in joints Redness, warmth, swelling, pain, fatigue Occurs on both sides of body Genetic, environmental, hormonal factors; immune system attacks the joints and other organs

26 Rheumatoid arthritis

27 Problems with Skeletal System - Dislocation
Normal Dislocated

28 Dislocation Normal Dislocated

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