27 Give Yourself a HandIf you’ve ever looked at a construction site, you know that a building is supported by a framework of beams. Your body also has a supporting framework. Instead of steel beams, bones support the human body. The beams that support a building are attached in a way that forms a rigid structure. Unlike these beams, the bones that support the body are connected in a way that allows them to move.
28 The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system Bones (skeleton)JointsCartilagesLigamentsTwo subdivisions of the skeletonAxial skeletonAppendicular skeleton
29 Functions of Bones fats Blood Support the body Protect soft organs Allow ________________due to attached skeletal musclesStore ___________and ____________.______________cell formationmovementmineralsfatsBlood
30 • The outside layers of bone are ____________and __________. These layers contain mostly _____________, such as calcium.It takes a lot of force to break bones.stronghardminerals
31 grow living • Bones are ________structures. Bones contain ___________and___________.Bones __________and __________as you do.Bones can also ____themselves if they break.bloodnervesgrowdevelopfix
32 Red Yellow _________marrow makes blood cells. • The center of many bones contains soft tissue called _____________._________marrow makes blood cells.___________ marrow stores fat in case the body needs it for energy.marrowRedYellow
34 Figure 36-3 The Structure of Bone Spongy boneCompact bonePeriosteumBone marrowArteryVein
35 False PelvisFalse PelvisInlet of True PelvisPelvicArchMore than 900Less than 900MaleFemale
36 joint Cartilage A __________ is where two bones meet. Tough tissues called______________ hold together the bones in movable joints.A tissue called _________________covers the ends of the bones.Cartilage keeps the bones from rubbing together at the joint.jointligamentsCartilage
38 Figure 36-4 Freely Movable Joints and Their Movements Section 36-1Ball-and-Socket JointPivot JointClavicleBall-and-socket jointScapulaHumerusHumerusRadiusPivot jointUlnaHinge JointSaddle JointFemurPatellaHinge jointTibiaFibulaMetacarpalsCarpalsSaddle joint
39 Demonstrating the Importance of Friction-Reducing Structures .Obtain a small water balloon and clamp. Partially fill the balloon with water (it should still be flaccid), and clamp it closed..Position the balloon atop one of your fists and press down on its top surface with the other fist. Push on the balloon until your two fists touch, and move your fists back and forth over one another. Assess the amount of friction generated..Unclamp the balloon and add more water. The goal is to get just enough water in the balloon so that your fists cannot come into contact with one another but remain separated by a thin water layer when pressure is applied to the balloon..Once again, perform the same movements to assess the amount of friction generated..How does the presence of a sac containing fluid influence the amount of friction generated?.What anatomical structure(s) does the water-containing balloon mimic?.What anatomical structures might be represented by your fists?
43 • As people get older, their bones may lose minerals • As people get older, their bones may lose minerals. Then the bones are weak and break easily.osteoporosis (ahs tee oh puh ROH sis)
44 • A __________is when the end of a bone comes out of its joint. • A _________a break in a bone. The bone may be just cracked, or it may be completely broken in two.• A __________is when the end of a bone comes out of its joint.• A ___________is when ligaments are stretched and torn. Sprains are the most common joint injuries.fracturedislocationsprain