Presentation on theme: "Human Body Systems Muscular System Skeletal System Circulatory System"— Presentation transcript:
1Human Body Systems Muscular System Skeletal System Circulatory System Integumentary SystemMuscular SystemNervousSystemSkeletal SystemCirculatory SystemHuman Body SystemsDigestive SystemRespiratory SystemExcretory SystemReproductive SystemLymphatic SystemEndocrine System
2The Skeleton Bone Structure Bone Development Joints The Skeletal SystemThe SkeletonBone StructureBone DevelopmentJoints
3The adult human skeleton has 206 bones and is divided into two parts: The Human SkeletonThe adult human skeleton has 206 bones and is divided into two parts:SkullSternumRibsVertebral columnAxial Skeleton - Supports the central axis of the body.MetatarsalsMetacarpalsPhalangesClavicleScapulaHumerusRadiusPelvisUlnaCarpalsFemurPatellaFibulaTibiaTarsalsAppendicular Skeleton - The bones of the appendages (arms, shoulder area, legs, and pelvis).
4Functions of the Skeleton Support – hold up the bodyProtection – rib cage, skull, and pelvic girdle protect important organsMovement – skeletal muscle attaches to the bones of the skeleton to allow movementStorage – bones store fat, calcium, mineralsHematopoeisis – blood cell formation
5Bone StructurePeriosteum – tough layer of fibrous connective tissue that surrounds boneCompact Bone – dense bone that makes up the bulk of the skeletonHaversian Canals – canals that run through compact bone that contain blood vessels and nervesSpongy Bone – porous bone found in the ends of long bones and in the middle of short and flat bonesBone Marrow – found in the cavities of bonesBone - a solid network of living cells and fibers that are supported by deposits of calcium salts
6Bone Marrow red marrow is in spongy bone production of blood cellsyellow marrow is found in the central cavity of long bonesstores fat and acts as an energy reserve
7Cartilage cushions the ends of bones provides structure elbows, hips, and kneesprovides structurenose and earsmuch of a newborn's skeleton is made of cartilage
8Bone DevelopmentCartilage pre-cursor – cartilage is slowly replaced by bone through a process called ossificationOsteoblasts – bone forming cellsOsteoclasts – bone destroying cellsOsteocytes – regulate cellular activities of boneThought Question:What disease is caused by an imbalance between Osteoblast and Osteoclasts?
9JointsBall and Socket Joint (shoulder) - bones can rotate while moving back and forth and side to sideHinge Joint (knee) - allows movement back and forth in one planePivot Joint (top of neck and base of skull) - one bone rotates around another
11The Knee Thought Question: Based on the diagram, what is the difference between a tendon and a ligament?MuscleTendonFemurPatellaBursaLigamentSynovial fluidCartilageFatFibulaTibiaTendon - connective tissue attaching muscle and bone.Ligament – connective tissue attaching bones
12Types of Muscle Tissue Muscle Contraction The Muscular SystemTypes of Muscle TissueMuscle Contraction
14Smooth MuscleFound in internal tubes and vessels – digestive and circulatory systemsMoves food, blood, and other substances through the bodyInvoluntary - not under conscious controlNot striateduninucleated
15Cardiac Muscle The muscle of the heart Main function is to pump blood StriatedInvoluntary
16Skeletal Muscle Attached to bones of the skeleton Allows for movement Striated – alternating light and dark bandsVoluntary – under conscious controlMultinucleatedAlso called muscle fibersComplete muscle tissue = muscle fibers, connective tissues, blood vessels, and nerves
17Can you identify the type of muscle shown below?
18Structure of Skeletal Muscle Muscle cells are bundled together and are surrounded by a connective sheath.ActinSkeletal muscleMyosinBundle of muscle fibersAn individual muscle cell is a long fiber with many nuclei. Each muscle cell contains a central cable made of a rodlike structures called myofibrilsSarcomereZ discMyofibrilMuscle fiber (cell)Myofibrils are composed of two types of protein, actin and myosin They make up the light and dark bands in functional units called sarcomeres.
19How a Muscle ContractsRelaxed MuscleZ discMyosinActinZ discMovement of Actin FilamentActinCross-bridgeSarcomereBinding sitesContracted MuscleMyosinmyosin - thick filaments, have many bump-like projections called "heads"actin - thin filaments, like a string of twisted beads, the ends of the actin strands are attached to Z linesCross-bridgesZ disc1. myosin heads attach to the actin filaments forming cross bridges2. the heads of the myosin filaments “walk” along the actin filaments, pulling them toward the center of the sarcomere
20Click on the link below to view a video showing a muscle contract: Thought Question:Based on the requirements necessary for muscle contraction, what organelle would you expect to find in high concentration in muscle cells?
21Muscle Contraction1Myosin forms cross-bridge with actin52Myosin returns to original shapeCross-bridge changes shape43Cross-bridge releases actinActin pulledWhen a muscle contracts, the heads of the myosin filaments “walk” along the actin filaments, pulling them toward the center of the sarcomere. As this occurs simultaneously in sarcomeres throughout the cell the muscle cell contracts.
22EssaysWhen a person decides to move, his skeletal muscles contract. Explain how a muscle contracts by discussing:What the contractile/functional unit of a muscle is called.What two proteins are involved in muscle contraction.Discuss the steps of skeletal muscle contraction (use the terms: Sarcomere, Actin, Myosin, Crossbridge, Z-Discs)Explain how the human skeleton accomplishes the following functions:a) Allows movement, protects internal organs, store mineral reserves, and provide a site for blood cell formation.b.) Be sure to explain where in the bones these tasks occur.c.) Explain two diseases that disrupt homeostasis by preventing these functions.22