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Chapter 5 Nomenclature Chemistry 101. 1.Ionic compounds (a metal and a nonmetal) 2. Covalent compounds (two nonmetals) Binary Compounds.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5 Nomenclature Chemistry 101. 1.Ionic compounds (a metal and a nonmetal) 2. Covalent compounds (two nonmetals) Binary Compounds."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 5 Nomenclature Chemistry 101

2 1.Ionic compounds (a metal and a nonmetal) 2. Covalent compounds (two nonmetals) Binary Compounds

3 1.Ionic compounds (a metal and a nonmetal) Binary Compounds

4 Metals: lose 1, 2 or 3 e - Cation (Y + ) Nonmetals: gain 1, 2 or 3 e - Anion (X - ) Ions Cation (Y + ): Na + Li + Ca 2+ Al 3+ Anion (X - ): Cl - F - O -2 Number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus remains unchanged.

5 Transition elements 1A2A 3A 4A5A6A7A 8A

6 Ionic bonds Metal-Nonmetal Anion Cation Opposite charges attract each other. Na  Na + + e - Cl + e -  Cl -

7 Sodium (Na) NaCl Chlorine (Cl)

8 Type I Monatomic Cations Metal has only one type of cation (main group elements) International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) systematic names Name of the metal + “ion” H + Hydrogen ion Li + Lithium ion Ca 2+ Calcium ion Al 3+ Aluminum ion

9 Type II Monatomic Cations Metal has two (or more) type of cations (transition elements) IUPAC or Systematic names 1 = I 2 = II 3 = III 4 = IV 5 = V 6 = VI

10 Common name (old name) Name of the metal + “-ous”smaller charge “-ic”larger charge Cu 1+ Copper(I) ionCuprous ion Cu 2+ Copper(II) ionCupric ion Fe 2+ Iron(II) ion Ferrous ion Fe 3+ Iron(III) ion Ferric ion Hg + Mercury(I) ion Mercurous ion Hg 2+ Mercury(II) ion Mercuric ion Sn 2+ Tin(II) ionStannous ion Sn 4+ Tin(IV) ionStannic ion Type II Monatomic Cations

11 Naming Monatomic Anions Stem part of name + “-ide” AnionStem nameAnion name F-F- fluorFluoride ion Cl - chlorChloride ion Br - bromBromide ion I-I- iodIodide ion O 2- oxOxide ion S 2- sulfSulfide ion P 3- phosphPhosphide ion N 3- nitrNitride ion

12 matter are neutral (uncharged): total number of positive charges = total number of negative charges Na + Cl - NaCl Ca 2+ Cl - CaCl 2 Al 3+ S 2- Al 2 S 3 Ba 2+ O 2- Ba 2 O 2 BaO Molecule of NaCl Formula of NaCl

13 Naming Binary Ionic compounds NaClSodium chloride CaOCalcium oxide Cu 2 OCopper(I) oxideCuprous oxide CuOCopper(II) oxideCupric oxide CsBr Cesium bromide MgSMagnesium sulfide FeCl 2 Iron(II) chloride Ferrous chloride FeCl 3 Iron(III) chloride Ferric chloride Name of metal cation Base name of anion + -ide

14 1.Ionic compounds (a metal and a nonmetal) 2. Covalent compounds (two nonmetals) Binary Compounds

15 2. Covalent compounds (two nonmetals) Binary Compounds

16 Naming Binary Covalent compounds (type III) Mono – Di – Tri – Tetra– Penta – Hexa – Hepta – Octa – Nona – Deca 1.Don’t use “mono” for the 1 st element. 2.Drop the “a” when followed by a vowel Rules: Prefix Name of 1 st Element Prefix Name of 2 nd Element + -ide

17 PCl 5 Phosphorous pentachloride SF 6 Sulfur hexafluoride Naming Binary Covalent compounds (type III) NO 2 Nitrogen dioxide N 2 O 4 Dinitrogen tetroxide CCl 4 Carbon tetrachloride S 2 O 3 Disulfur trioxide

18 Binary Compounds Metal present? Yes Does the metal form more than one cation? Yes No Yes No Type I Use the element name for the cation Type II Find the charge of the cation Use a Roman number after the element name. Type III Use prefixes

19 Naming Polyatomic Ionic Compounds They contain more than two elements.

20 Naming Polyatomic Ions Cation

21 Oxyanions Polyatomic anions with different numbers of oxygen atoms. NO 2 - Nitrite NO 3 - Nitrate SO 3 2- Sulfite SO 4 2- Sulfate HSO 3 - Hydrogen Sulfite (bisulfite) HSO 4 - Hydrogen sulfate (bisulfate) PO 3 3- Phosphite PO 4 3- Phosphate HPO 4 2- Hydrogen phosphate H 2 PO 4 - Dihydrogen phosphate Smaller number of oxygen atoms ends with –ite. Larger number of oxygen atoms ends with –ate. When we have two oxyanions in a series:

22 Oxyanions When we have more than two oxyanions in a series: (Fewest oxygen atoms) Prefix hypo- (Most oxygen atoms) Prefix per- ClO - hypochlorite ClO 2 - chlorite ClO 3 - chlorate ClO 4 - perchlorate

23 matter are neutral (uncharged): total number of positive charges = total number of negative charges Na + NO 3 - NaNO 3 Ca 2+ CO 3 2- Ca 2 (CO 3 ) 2 CaCO 3 Al 3+ SO 4 2- Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 Mg 2+ NO 2 - Mg(NO 2 ) 2

24 Naming Polyatomic Ionic compounds NaNO 3 CaCO 3 Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 Mg(NO 2 ) 2 Sodium nitrate Calcium carbonate Aluminum sulfate Magnesium nitrite Name of metal cationName of polyatomic ion

25 Naming Polyatomic Ionic compounds FeCO 3 Fe 2 (CO 3 ) 3 Iron(II) carbonate Iron(III) carbonate Name of metal cation Name of polyatomic ion Charge of cation in Roman numerals ( )

26 Naming acids Acids: sour They produce H + (proton) in water.

27 Naming binary acids Hydro -ide ion -ic acid Anion : + HFF - : flouride ionHydroflouric acid HClCl - : chloride ionHydrochloric acid H2SH2SS 2- : sulfuride ionHydrosulfuric acid

28 Naming Polyatomic Acids Anion: -ite ion -ous acid -ate ion -ic acid HNO 3 NO 3 - :Nitrate ionNitric acid HNO 2 NO 2 - :Nitrite ionNitrous acid H 2 CO 3 CO 3 2- :Carbonate ionCarbonic acid H 2 SO 3 SO 3 2- :Sulfurite ionSulfurous acid

29 First Midterm Midterm Exam Next Thursday. Covers Chapters 1-5. Completely multiple choice questions. Bring a 2B pencil, one Scantron form (available in Runner Bookstore), a calculator (scientific, not graphing). Practice questions posted on my website, practice in ALEKS, look at textbook end-of-chapter problems.


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