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Nomenclature Notes. Introduction  Nomenclature: System for naming compounds Avoids “common name” confusion System – Name tells something about the composition.

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Presentation on theme: "Nomenclature Notes. Introduction  Nomenclature: System for naming compounds Avoids “common name” confusion System – Name tells something about the composition."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nomenclature Notes

2 Introduction  Nomenclature: System for naming compounds Avoids “common name” confusion System – Name tells something about the composition of the compound

3 Introduction  Binary Compounds: Compounds composed of 2 elements

4 Categories of Binary Compounds  Compounds that contain a metal and a nonmetal. Called binary ionic compounds  Involves a positive cation (metal) and a negative anion (nonmetal)  NAME them by simply naming the ions!  There are 2 types of the metal / nonmetal compounds

5 Type I Binary Compounds  Contain metal atoms that only form cation that has 1 possible charge Atom NameIon NameSymbol of Ion Sodium Calcium Aluminum

6 Type I Binary Compounds  Contain metal atoms that only form cation that has 1 possible charge Atom NameIon NameSymbol of Ion SodiumSodium IonNa +1 Calcium Aluminum

7 Type I Binary Compounds  Contain metal atoms that only form cation that has 1 possible charge Atom NameIon NameSymbol of Ion SodiumSodium IonNa +1 CalciumCalcium IonCa +2 Aluminum

8 Type I Binary Compounds  Contain metal atoms that only form cation that has 1 possible charge Atom NameIon NameSymbol of Ion SodiumSodium IonNa +1 CalciumCalcium IonCa +2 AluminumAluminum IonAl +3

9 Type I Binary Compounds  Naming Rules 1. Name cation (metal) first and then the anion (non-metal) second. 2. Simply use the atom’s name for the name of the cation. 3. For the anion, take the root from the atom’s name and change the ending to –ide. NOTE: Sometimes the root gets more modification.

10 Type I Binary Compounds Atom NameIon NameSymbol of Ion Chlorine Oxygen Sulfur Nitrogen

11 Type I Binary Compounds Atom NameIon NameSymbol of Ion ChlorineChlorideCl 1- Oxygen Sulfur Nitrogen

12 Type I Binary Compounds Atom NameIon NameSymbol of Ion ChlorineChlorideCl 1- OxygenOxideO 2- Sulfur Nitrogen

13 Type I Binary Compounds Atom NameIon NameSymbol of Ion ChlorineChlorideCl 1- OxygenOxideO 2- SulfurSulfideS 2- Nitrogen

14 Type I Binary Compounds Atom NameIon NameSymbol of Ion ChlorineChlorideCl 1- OxygenOxideO 2- SulfurSulfideS 2- NitrogenNitrideN 3-

15 Type I Binary Compounds Atom NameIon NameSymbol of Ion ChlorineChlorideCl 1- OxygenOxideO 2- SulfurSulfideS 2- NitrogenNitrideN 3-  Remember symbols for ions show the charge but ionic compound formulas don’t.

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17 Type I Binary Compounds  For each of the following identify the ions and name the compounds. FormulaIonsName ExampleCsFCs +1 and F -1 Cesium Fluoride 1.AlCl 3 2.MgI 2 3.KCl 4.Sc 2 S 3

18 Type I Binary Compounds  For each of the following identify the ions and name the compounds. FormulaIonsName ExampleCsFCs +1 and F -1 Cesium Fluoride 1.AlCl 3 Al +3 and Cl -1 Aluminum Chloride 2.MgI 2 3.KCl 4.Sc 2 S 3

19 Type I Binary Compounds  For each of the following identify the ions and name the compounds. FormulaIonsName ExampleCsFCs +1 and F -1 Cesium Fluoride 1.AlCl 3 Al +3 and Cl -1 Aluminum Chloride 2.MgI 2 Mg +2 and I -1 Magnesium Iodide 3.KCl 4.Sc 2 S 3

20 Type I Binary Compounds  For each of the following identify the ions and name the compounds. FormulaIonsName ExampleCsFCs +1 and F -1 Cesium Fluoride 1.AlCl 3 Al +3 and Cl -1 Aluminum Chloride 2.MgI 2 Mg +2 and I -1 Magnesium Iodide 3.KClK +1 and Cl -1 Potassium Chloride 4.Sc 2 S 3

21 Type I Binary Compounds  For each of the following identify the ions and name the compounds. FormulaIonsName ExampleCsFCs +1 and F -1 Cesium Fluoride 1.AlCl 3 Al +3 and Cl -1 Aluminum Chloride 2.MgI 2 Mg +2 and I -1 Magnesium Iodide 3.KClK +1 and Cl -1 Potassium Chloride 4.Sc 2 S 3 Sc +3 and S -2 Scandium Sulfide

22 Type II Binary Ionic Compounds  Contain metal atoms that can form 2 or more cations. AtomIonsSymbol Chromium Cr +2 Cr +3 Copper Cu +1 Cu +2 Gold Au +1 Au +3

23 Type II Binary Ionic Compounds  Contain metal atoms that can form 2 or more cations. AtomIonsSymbol Chromium Chromium (II)Cr +2 Cr +3 Copper Cu +1 Cu +2 Gold Au +1 Au +3

24 Type II Binary Ionic Compounds  Contain metal atoms that can form 2 or more cations. AtomIonsSymbol Chromium Chromium (II) Chromium (III) Cr +2 Cr +3 Copper Cu +1 Cu +2 Gold Au +1 Au +3

25 Type II Binary Ionic Compounds  Contain metal atoms that can form 2 or more cations. AtomIonsSymbol Chromium Chromium (II) Chromium (III) Cr +2 Cr +3 Copper Copper (I)Cu +1 Cu +2 Gold Au +1 Au +3

26 Type II Binary Ionic Compounds  Contain metal atoms that can form 2 or more cations. AtomIonsSymbol Chromium Chromium (II) Chromium (III) Cr +2 Cr +3 Copper Copper (I) Copper (II) Cu +1 Cu +2 Gold Au +1 Au +3

27 Type II Binary Ionic Compounds  Contain metal atoms that can form 2 or more cations. AtomIonsSymbol Chromium Chromium (II) Chromium (III) Cr +2 Cr +3 Copper Copper (I) Copper (II) Cu +1 Cu +2 Gold Gold (I)Au +1 Au +3

28 Type II Binary Ionic Compounds  Contain metal atoms that can form 2 or more cations. AtomIonsSymbol Chromium Chromium (II) Chromium (III) Cr +2 Cr +3 Copper Copper (I) Copper (II) Cu +1 Cu +2 Gold Gold (I) Gold (III) Au +1 Au +3

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30 Type II Binary Ionic Compounds  Naming Rules 1. Name cation (metal) first and then the anion (non-metal) second. 2. Use Roman numeral after the cation’s name to indicate the charge. Ni +2  Nickel (II) Ion Ni +3  Nickel (III) Ion

31 Type II Binary Ionic Compounds  Naming Rules 3.Name the anion as in Type I ions. Take the root of the atom and change the ending to –ide. As before sometimes the root gets more modification. P -3  Phosphide Ion Br -1  Bromide Ion

32 Type II Binary Ionic Compounds  How do know to use the Roman Numerals? Look on you Periodic Table (from the bookstore). If the METAL atom shows more than one possible cation charge you must use a Roman Numeral in the NAME.

33 Type II Binary Ionic Compounds  How do we know which charge it is? Know that the cation (positive) charge must balance the total anion (negative) charge. Examples: 1. FeCl 2 2. PbO 2

34 Type II Binary Ionic Compounds  Another system (not used much anymore) for naming Type II Binary Ionic Compounds exists. Ion form with the higher charge has the name ending in –ic. Ion form with the lower charge has the name ending in –ous.  We will use the Roman Numeral System but you may at times see the other system.

35 Binary Compounds – Categories  Compounds that contain a metal and a non- metal Type I – Cation formed has only 1 possible charge. Type II – Cation formed has 2 or more possible charges.  Compounds that contain only non-metals – Type III Binary Compounds

36  Contain ONLY NON-METALS  Rules for naming! 1. 1 st element in the formula is named first and full element name is used nd element is named as if it were an anion (-ide ending) 3. Prefixes are used to describe the number of atoms present.

37 Type III Binary Compounds 1 = mono- 2 = di- 3 = tri- 4 = tetra- 5 = penta- 6 = hexa- 7 = hepta- 8 = octa- 9 = nona- 10= deca- Prefixes

38 Type III Binary Compounds  Rules for naming! (Continued) 4. Never use the prefix mono- in naming the first element. 5. Drop the ending o or a ending on a prefix before an element that starts with the vowel – O or A Examples: 1. N 3 S 5 2. P 7 O 9 3. S 2 O 4. CO 6

39 Type III Binary Compounds  Rules for naming! (Continued) 4. Never use the prefix mono- in naming the first element. 5. Drop the ending o or a ending on a prefix before an element that starts with the vowel – O or A Examples: 1. N 3 S 5 Trinitrogen pentasulfide 2. P 7 O 9 3. S 2 O 4. CO 6

40 Type III Binary Compounds  Rules for naming! (Continued) 4. Never use the prefix mono- in naming the first element. 5. Drop the ending o or a ending on a prefix before an element that starts with the vowel – O or A Examples: 1. N 3 S 5 Trinitrogen pentasulfide 2. P 7 O 9 Heptaphosphorus nonoxide 3. S 2 O 4. CO 6

41 Type III Binary Compounds  Rules for naming! (Continued) 4. Never use the prefix mono- in naming the first element. 5. Drop the ending o or a ending on a prefix before an element that starts with the vowel – O or A Examples: 1. N 3 S 5 Trinitrogen pentasulfide 2. P 7 O 9 Heptaphosphorus nonoxide 3. S 2 ODisulfur monoxide 4. CO 6

42 Type III Binary Compounds  Rules for naming! (Continued) 4. Never use the prefix mono- in naming the first element. 5. Drop the ending o or a ending on a prefix before an element that starts with the vowel – O or A Examples: 1. N 3 S 5 Trinitrogen pentasulfide 2. P 7 O 9 Heptaphosphorus nonoxide 3. S 2 ODisulfur monoxide 4. CO 6 Carbon hexoxide

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44 Writing Formulas  For Type I and Type II Compounds 1. Determine the charge on the ions present. a. For type II compounds the roman numeral gives you the charge of the cation. b. For Type I compounds the position on the periodic table helps you determine the charge. 2. Use subscripts for each atom so that the total charge on the compound is zero.

45 Writing Formulas  For Type III – (identified because they are both non-metals) 1. Use the prefixes to determine the subscripts. 2. Remember that the subscript for the first element is 1 if there isn’t any prefix

46 Writing Formulas  Practice Problems- Identify the type and then write the formula. 1. Sodium phosphide 2. Tricarbon tetroxide. 3. Lithium selenide

47 Writing Formulas  Practice Problems- Identify the type and then write the formula. 4. Iron (III) sulfide 5. Aluminum iodide 6. Boron octafluoride

48 Writing Formulas  Practice Problems- Identify the type and then write the formula. 7. Manganese (VII) phosphide 8. Diphosphorous monoxide 9. Chromium (III) nitride

49 Type IV - Compounds  Identified because They contain more than two elements. A POLYATOMIC ion (ion made of 2 or more different atoms) is present

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51 Type IV - Compounds  How is it named? Locate the polyatomic ion and name it the name of the ion. Follow the rules for the other ion  as an anion or as a cation with one or more charges.  Type I or Type II Rules Apply for it.

52 Type IV - Compounds  Oxyanions A series of polyatomic anions that contain an atom of a given element and different numbers of oxygen atoms.

53 Type IV - Compounds  Oxyanions There are rules for naming it.  The smaller number of oxygen atoms is – ite SO 3 -2 = Sulfite PO 3 -3 = Phosphite  The larger number of oxygen atoms is – ate SO 4 -2 = Sulfate PO 4 -3 = Phosphate

54 Type IV - Compounds  Oxyanions (continued)  For more than two anions – hypo (less than) as the smallest and – per (more than) as the largest. ClO -1 = hypochlorite ClO 2 -1 = chlorite ClO 3 -1 = chlorate ClO 4 -1 = perchlorate

55 Type IV - Compounds  Practice NaOH (NH 4 ) 3 P Al(CN) 3 Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 Ca(OH) 2 Pb(CO 3 ) 2 MgCrO 4 (NH 4 ) 3 PO 3

56 Type IV - Compounds  Practice NaOH = Sodium hydroxide (NH 4 ) 3 P Al(CN) 3 Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 Ca(OH) 2 Pb(CO 3 ) 2 MgCrO 4 (NH 4 ) 3 PO 3

57 Type IV - Compounds  Practice NaOH = Sodium hydroxide (NH 4 ) 3 P = Ammonium phosphide Al(CN) 3 Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 Ca(OH) 2 Pb(CO 3 ) 2 MgCrO 4 (NH 4 ) 3 PO 3

58 Type IV - Compounds  Practice NaOH = Sodium hydroxide (NH 4 ) 3 P = Ammonium phosphide Al(CN) 3 = Aluminum cyanide Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 Ca(OH) 2 Pb(CO 3 ) 2 MgCrO 4 (NH 4 ) 3 PO 3

59 Type IV - Compounds  Practice NaOH = Sodium hydroxide (NH 4 ) 3 P = Ammonium phosphide Al(CN) 3 = Aluminum cyanide Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 = Iron (III) sulfate Ca(OH) 2 Pb(CO 3 ) 2 MgCrO 4 (NH 4 ) 3 PO 3

60 Type IV - Compounds  Practice NaOH = Sodium hydroxide (NH 4 ) 3 P = Ammonium phosphide Al(CN) 3 = Aluminum cyanide Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 = Iron (III) sulfate Ca(OH) 2 = Calcium hydroxide Pb(CO 3 ) 2 MgCrO 4 (NH 4 ) 3 PO 3

61 Type IV - Compounds  Practice NaOH = Sodium hydroxide (NH 4 ) 3 P = Ammonium phosphide Al(CN) 3 = Aluminum cyanide Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 = Iron (III) sulfate Ca(OH) 2 = Calcium hydroxide Pb(CO 3 ) 2 = Lead (IV) Carbonate MgCrO 4 (NH 4 ) 3 PO 3

62 Type IV - Compounds  Practice NaOH = Sodium hydroxide (NH 4 ) 3 P = Ammonium phosphide Al(CN) 3 = Aluminum cyanide Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 = Iron (III) sulfate Ca(OH) 2 = Calcium hydroxide Pb(CO 3 ) 2 = Lead (IV) Carbonate MgCrO 4 = Magnesium chromate (NH 4 ) 3 PO 3

63 Type IV - Compounds  Practice NaOH = Sodium hydroxide (NH 4 ) 3 P = Ammonium phosphide Al(CN) 3 = Aluminum cyanide Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 = Iron (III) sulfate Ca(OH) 2 = Calcium hydroxide Pb(CO 3 ) 2 = Lead (IV) Carbonate MgCrO 4 = Magnesium chromate (NH 4 ) 3 PO 3 = Ammonium phosphite

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65 Acids  Acids are molecules that produce H +1 (protons) in water.

66 Naming Acids 1.If the anion does not contain oxygen, the acid is named with the prefix – hydro and the suffix – ic attached to the root name for the element. HCl = HBr = H 2 S = Binary Acids

67 Naming Acids 1.If the anion does not contain oxygen, the acid is named with the prefix – hydro and the suffix – ic attached to the root name for the element. HCl = hydrochloric acid HBr = H 2 S = Binary Acids

68 Naming Acids 1.If the anion does not contain oxygen, the acid is named with the prefix – hydro and the suffix – ic attached to the root name for the element. HCl = hydrochloric acid HBr = hydrobromic acid H 2 S = Binary Acids

69 Naming Acids 1.If the anion does not contain oxygen, the acid is named with the prefix – hydro and the suffix – ic attached to the root name for the element. HCl = hydrochloric acid HBr = hydrobromic acid H 2 S = hydrosulfuric acid Binary Acids

70 Naming Acids (continued) 2.When the anion contains oxygen, the acid name is formed from the root name and the central element of the anion or the anion name with a suffix of –ic or –ous.

71 Naming Acids (continued) 2.When the anion contains oxygen, the acid name is formed from the root name and the central element of the anion or the anion name with a suffix of –ic or –ous. a. When the anion names ends in –ate, the suffix –ic is used H 2 SO 4 =

72 Naming Acids (continued) 2.When the anion contains oxygen, the acid name is formed from the root name and the central element of the anion or the anion name with a suffix of –ic or –ous. a. When the anion names ends in –ate, the suffix –ic is used H 2 SO 4 = Sulfuric acid (from sulfate)

73 Naming Acids (continued) 2.When the anion contains oxygen, the acid name is formed from the root name and the central element of the anion or the anion name with a suffix of –ic or –ous. a. When the anion names ends in –ate, the suffix –ic is used H 2 SO 4 = Sulfuric acid (from sulfate) b. When the anion name ends in –ite, the suffix – ous is used. HNO 2 =

74 Naming Acids (continued) 2.When the anion contains oxygen, the acid name is formed from the root name and the central element of the anion or the anion name with a suffix of –ic or –ous. a. When the anion names ends in –ate, the suffix –ic is used H 2 SO 4 = Sulfuric acid (from sulfate) b. When the anion name ends in –ite, the suffix – ous is used. HNO 2 = Nitrous acid (from nitrite)

75 Naming Acids (continued)  You should memorize the following strong acids  HCl =  HBr =  HF =  HI =  H 2 SO 4 =  H 3 PO 4 =  HNO 3 =

76 Naming Acids (continued)  You should memorize the following strong acids  HCl = Hydrochloric Acid  HBr =  HF =  HI =  H 2 SO 4 =  H 3 PO 4 =  HNO 3 =

77 Naming Acids (continued)  You should memorize the following strong acids  HCl = Hydrochloric Acid  HBr = Hydrobromic Acid  HF =  HI =  H 2 SO 4 =  H 3 PO 4 =  HNO 3 =

78 Naming Acids (continued)  You should memorize the following strong acids  HCl = Hydrochloric Acid  HBr = Hydrobromic Acid  HF = Hydrofluoric Acid  HI =  H 2 SO 4 =  H 3 PO 4 =  HNO 3 =

79 Naming Acids (continued)  You should memorize the following strong acids  HCl = Hydrochloric Acid  HBr = Hydrobromic Acid  HF = Hydrofluoric Acid  HI = Hydroiodic Acid  H 2 SO 4 =  H 3 PO 4 =  HNO 3 =

80 Naming Acids (continued)  You should memorize the following strong acids  HCl = Hydrochloric Acid  HBr = Hydrobromic Acid  HF = Hydrofluoric Acid  HI = Hydroiodic Acid  H 2 SO 4 = Sulfuric Acid  H 3 PO 4 =  HNO 3 =

81 Naming Acids (continued)  You should memorize the following strong acids  HCl = Hydrochloric Acid  HBr = Hydrobromic Acid  HF = Hydrofluoric Acid  HI = Hydroiodic Acid  H 2 SO 4 = Sulfuric Acid  H 3 PO 4 = Phosphoric Acid  HNO 3 =

82 Naming Acids (continued)  You should memorize the following strong acids  HCl = Hydrochloric Acid  HBr = Hydrobromic Acid  HF = Hydrofluoric Acid  HI = Hydroiodic Acid  H 2 SO 4 = Sulfuric Acid  H 3 PO 4 = Phosphoric Acid  HNO 3 = Nitric Acid


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