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Tuesday!!!!! 12/13/11 Bell Ringer 1) Turn in any field trip papers and money. We can take 2 more students! 2) Pick up the midterm online review paper.

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Presentation on theme: "Tuesday!!!!! 12/13/11 Bell Ringer 1) Turn in any field trip papers and money. We can take 2 more students! 2) Pick up the midterm online review paper."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Tuesday!!!!! 12/13/11 Bell Ringer 1) Turn in any field trip papers and money. We can take 2 more students! 2) Pick up the midterm online review paper off the front demo table and the Paper Midterm Review answer key. Schedule 1.Bell Ringer 2.HW Check 3.Nomenclature notes HOMEWORK: Review for your midterm !!!!! PAP Chemistry Man cannot discover new oceans unless he has the courage to lose sight of the shore. I CAN……solve chemistry problems by being an independent, creative thinker.

3 Nomenclature NOVA: Island of Stability….why can’t we just create new elements? NOVA: Island of Stability….why can’t we just create new elements?

4 IonsIons  Cation: A positive ion  Mg 2+, NH 4 +  Anion: A negative ion  Cl , SO 4 2   Ionic Bonding: Force of attraction between oppositely charged ions.

5 Predicting Ionic Charges Group 1: Lose 1 electron to form 1+ ions Li + Na + K+K+K+K+

6 Predicting Ionic Charges Group 2: Loses 2 electrons to form 2+ ions Be 2+ Mg 2+ Ca 2+ Sr 2+ Ba 2+

7 Predicting Ionic Charges Group 13: Loses 3 Loses 3 electrons to form 3+ ions B 3+ Al 3+ Ga 3+

8 Predicting Ionic Charges Group 14: Lose 4 Lose 4 electrons or gain 4 electrons? Neither! Group 14 elements rarely form ions. +/- 4

9 Predicting Ionic Charges Group 15: Gains 3 Gains 3 electrons to form 3- ions N 3- P 3- As 3- Nitride Phosphide Arsenide

10 Predicting Ionic Charges Group 16: Gains 2 Gains 2 electrons to form 2- ions O 2- S 2- Se 2- Oxide Sulfide Selenide

11 Predicting Ionic Charges Group 17: Gains 1 Gains 1 electron to form 1- ions F 1- Cl 1- Br 1- Fluoride Chloride Bromide I 1- Iodide

12 Predicting Ionic Charges Group 18: Stable Noble gases do not form ions! Stable Noble gases do not form ions!

13 Predicting Ionic Charges Groups : Many transition elements Many transition elements have more than one possible oxidation state. have more than one possible oxidation state. Iron(II) = Fe 2+ Iron(III) = Fe 3+ Copper (I) = Cu +1 Copper (II) = Cu +2

14 Predicting Ionic Charges Groups : Some transition elements Some transition elements have only one possible oxidation state. have only one possible oxidation state. Zinc = Zn 2+ Silver = Ag + Tin ( II) = Sn +2 Tin (IV) = Sn +4

15 Latin names You may see the Latin names for Fe, Cu, and Sn You may see the Latin names for Fe, Cu, and Sn Iron (II) = Ferrous Iron (II) = Ferrous Irong (III) = Ferric Irong (III) = Ferric Copper (I) = Cupprous Copper (I) = Cupprous Copper (II) = Cuppric Copper (II) = Cuppric Tin (II) = Stannous Tin (II) = Stannous Tin (IV) = Stannic Tin (IV) = Stannic

16 Writing Ionic Compound Formulas Example: Iron(III) chloride 1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES! Fe 3+ Cl - 2. Check to see if charges are balanced. 3. Balance charges, if necessary, using subscripts. Use parentheses if you need more than one of a polyatomic ion. Not balanced! 3

17 Writing Ionic Compound Formulas Example: Aluminum sulfide 1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES! Al 3+ S Check to see if charges are balanced. 3. Balance charges, if necessary, using subscripts. Use parentheses if you need more than one of a polyatomic ion. Not balanced! 23

18 Writing Ionic Compound Formulas Example: Barium nitrate 1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES! Ba 2+ NO Check to see if charges are balanced. 3. Balance charges, if necessary, using subscripts. Use parentheses if you need more than one of a polyatomic ion. Not balanced! ( ) 2

19 Writing Ionic Compound Formulas Example: Ammonium sulfate 1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES! NH 4 + SO Check to see if charges are balanced. 3. Balance charges, if necessary, using subscripts. Use parentheses if you need more than one of a polyatomic ion. Not balanced! ( ) 2

20 Writing Ionic Compound Formulas Example: Magnesium carbonate 1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES! Mg 2+ CO Check to see if charges are balanced. They are balanced!

21 Writing Ionic Compound Formulas Example: Zinc hydroxide 1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES! Zn 2+ OH - 2. Check to see if charges are balanced. 3. Balance charges, if necessary, using subscripts. Use parentheses if you need more than one of a polyatomic ion. Not balanced! ( ) 2

22 Writing Ionic Compound Formulas Example: Aluminum phosphate 1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES! Al 3+ PO Check to see if charges are balanced. They ARE balanced!

23 Naming Ionic Compounds 1. Cation first, then anion 1. Cation first, then anion 2. Monatomic cation = name of the element 2. Monatomic cation = name of the element Ca 2+ = calcium ion Ca 2+ = calcium ion 3. Monatomic anion = root + -ide 3. Monatomic anion = root + -ide Cl  = chloride Cl  = chloride CaCl 2 = calcium chloride CaCl 2 = calcium chloride

24 Naming Ionic Compounds (continued) -some metal forms more than one cation -some metal forms more than one cation -use Roman numeral in name -use Roman numeral in name PbCl 2 PbCl 2 Pb 2+ is cation Pb 2+ is cation PbCl 2 = lead(II) chloride PbCl 2 = lead(II) chloride Metals with multiple oxidation states

25 Naming Binary (Covalent) Compounds - Compounds between two nonmetals - Compounds between two nonmetals -First element in the formula is named first. -First element in the formula is named first. -Second element is named as if it were an anion. -Second element is named as if it were an anion. -Use prefixes -Use prefixes -Only use mono on second element - -Only use mono on second element - P 2 O 5 = CO 2 = CO = N 2 O = diphosphorus pentoxide carbon dioxide carbon monoxide dinitrogen monoxide

26 Prefixes 1 - mon(o) 1 - mon(o) 2 - di 2 - di 3 - tri 3 - tri 4 - tetr(a) 4 - tetr(a) 5 - pent(a) 5 - pent(a) 6 - hex(a) 6 - hex(a) 7 - hept(a) 7 - hept(a) 8 - oct(a) 8 - oct(a) 9 - non(a) 9 - non(a) 10 - dec(a) 10 - dec(a)

27 CCl 4 CCl 4 N 2 O N 2 O SF 6 SF 6 carbon tetrachloride carbon tetrachloride dinitrogen monoxide dinitrogen monoxide sulfur hexafluoride sulfur hexafluoride C. Molecular Nomenclature

28 arsenic trichloride arsenic trichloride dinitrogen pentoxide dinitrogen pentoxide tetraphosphorus decoxide tetraphosphorus decoxide AsCl 3 AsCl 3 N 2 O 5 N 2 O 5 P 4 O 10 P 4 O 10 C. Molecular Nomenclature

29 Common Acids you SHOULD know HCl Hydrochloric acid HCl Hydrochloric acid HBr Hydrobromic acid HBr Hydrobromic acid HNO 3 Nitric Acid HNO 3 Nitric Acid HClO 3 Chloric Acid HClO 3 Chloric Acid HClO 4 Perchloric Acid HClO 4 Perchloric Acid H 2 SO 4 Sulfuric Acid H 2 SO 4 Sulfuric Acid H 3 PO 4 Phosphoric Acid H 3 PO 4 Phosphoric Acid HC 2 H 3 O 2 Acetic Acid (5% Acetic Acid is also HC 2 H 3 O 2 Acetic Acid (5% Acetic Acid is also known as Vinegar) known as Vinegar)


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