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Chapter 5 Nomenclature Chemistry B2A. 1.Ionic compounds (a metal and a nonmetal) 2. Covalent compounds (two nonmetals) Binary Compounds.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5 Nomenclature Chemistry B2A. 1.Ionic compounds (a metal and a nonmetal) 2. Covalent compounds (two nonmetals) Binary Compounds."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 5 Nomenclature Chemistry B2A

2 1.Ionic compounds (a metal and a nonmetal) 2. Covalent compounds (two nonmetals) Binary Compounds

3 1.Ionic compounds (a metal and a nonmetal) Binary Compounds

4 Metals: lose 1, 2 or 3 e - Cation (Y + ) Nonmetals: gain 1, 2 or 3 e - Anion (X - ) Ions Cation (Y + ): Na + Li + Ca 2+ Al 3+ Anion (X - ): Cl - F - O -2 Number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus remains unchanged.

5 Transition elements 1A2A 3A 4A5A6A7A 8A

6 Ionic bonds Metal-Nonmetal Anion Cation Opposite charges attract each other. Na  Na + + e - Cl + e -  Cl -

7 Sodium (Na) NaCl Chlorine (Cl)

8 Type I Monatomic Cations Metal has only one type of cation (main group elements) International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) systematic names Name of the metal + “ion” H + Hydrogen ion Li + Lithium ion Ca 2+ Calcium ion Al 3+ Aluminum ion

9 Type II Monatomic Cations Metal has two (or more) type of cations (transition elements) Cu 1+ Copper(I) ion Cu 2+ Copper(II) ion Fe 2+ Iron(II) ion Fe 3+ Iron(III) ion Hg + Mercury(I) ion Hg 2+ Mercury(II) ion Sn 2+ Tin(II) ion Sn 4+ Tin(IV) ion Co 2+ Cobalt(II) ion Co 3+ Cobalt(III) ion Pb 2+ Lead(II) ion Pb 4+ Lead(IV) ion IUPAC or Systematic names

10 Common name (old name) Name of the metal + “-ous”smaller charge “-ic”larger charge Cu 1+ Copper(I) ionCuprous ion Cu 2+ Copper(II) ionCupric ion Fe 2+ Iron(II) ion Ferrous ion Fe 3+ Iron(III) ion Ferric ion Hg + Mercury(I) ion Mercurous ion Hg 2+ Mercury(II) ion Mercuric ion Sn 2+ Tin(II) ionStannous ion Sn 4+ Tin(IV) ionStannic ion Type II Monatomic Cations

11 Naming Monatomic Anions Stem part of name + “-ide” AnionStem nameAnion name F-F- fluorFluoride ion Cl - chlorChloride ion Br - bromBromide ion I-I- iodIodide ion O 2- oxOxide ion S 2- sulfSulfide ion P 3- phosphPhosphide ion N 3- nitrNitride ion

12 matter are neutral (uncharged): total number of positive charges = total number of negative charges Na + Cl - NaCl Ca 2+ Cl - CaCl 2 Al 3+ S 2- Al 2 S 3 Ba 2+ O 2- Ba 2 O 2 BaO Molecule of NaCl Formula of NaCl

13 Naming Binary Ionic compounds Name of metal (cation) + Name of anion NaClSodium chloride CaOCalcium oxide Cu 2 OCopper(I) oxideCuprous oxide CuOCopper(II) oxideCupric oxide CsBr Cesium bromide MgSMagnesium sulfide FeCl 2 Iron(II) chloride Ferrous chloride FeCl 3 Iron(III) chloride Ferric chloride

14 1.Ionic compounds (a metal and a nonmetal) 2. Covalent compounds (two nonmetals) Binary Compounds

15 2. Covalent compounds (two nonmetals) Binary Compounds

16 Naming Binary Covalent compounds (type III) Mono – Di – Tri – Tetra– Penta – Hexa – Hepta – Octa – Nona – Deca 1.Don’t use “mono” for the 1 st element. 2.Drop the “a” when followed by a vowel. prefix and full name of the first element in formula + prefix and the anion name of the second element + “ide” Rules:

17 PCl 5 Phosphorous pentachloride SF 6 Sulfur hexafluoride Naming Binary Covalent compounds (type III) NO 2 Nitrogen dioxide N 2 O 4 Dinitrogen tetroxide CCl 4 Carbon tetrachloride S 2 O 3 Disulfur trioxide

18 Binary Compounds Metal present? Yes Does the metal form more than one cation? Yes No Yes No Type I Use the element name for the cation Type II Find the charge of the cation Use a Roman number after the element name. Type III Use prefixes

19 Naming Polyatomic Ionic Compounds They contain more than two elements.

20 Naming Polyatomic Ions Cation: NH 4 + Ammonium Anion: OH - Hydroxide NO 2 - Nitrite NO 3 - Nitrate SO 3 2- Sulfite SO 4 2- Sulfate HSO 3 - Hydrogen Sulfite (bisulfite) HSO 4 - Hydrogen sulfate (bisulfate) MnO 4 - Permanganate CrO 4 2- Chromate Cr 2 O 7 2- Dichromate CO 3 2- Carbonate HCO 3 - Hydrogen Carbonate (bicarbonate) PO 3 3- Phosphite PO 4 3- Phosphate HPO 4 2- Hydrogen phosphate H 2 PO 4 - Dihydrogen phosphate

21 Oxyanions Polyatomic anions with different numbers of oxygen atoms. NO 2 - Nitrite NO 3 - Nitrate SO 3 2- Sulfite SO 4 2- Sulfate HSO 3 - Hydrogen Sulfite (bisulfite) HSO 4 - Hydrogen sulfate (bisulfate) PO 3 3- Phosphite PO 4 3- Phosphate HPO 4 2- Hydrogen phosphate H 2 PO 4 - Dihydrogen phosphate Smaller number of oxygen atoms ends with –ite. Larger number of oxygen atoms ends with –ate. When we have two oxyanions in a series:

22 Oxyanions When we have more than two oxyanions in a series: (Fewest oxygen atoms) Prefix hypo- (Most oxygen atoms) Prefix per- ClO - hypochlorite ClO 2 - chlorite ClO 3 - chlorate ClO 4 - perchlorate

23 matter are neutral (uncharged): total number of positive charges = total number of negative charges Na + NO 3 - NaNO 3 Ca 2+ CO 3 2- Ca 2 (CO 3 ) 2 Ca(CO 3 ) Al 3+ SO 4 2- Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 Mg 2+ NO 2 - Mg(NO 2 ) 2

24 Naming Polyatomic Ionic compounds Name of metal (cation) + Name of anion NaNO 3 Ca(CO 3 ) Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 Mg(NO 2 ) 2 Sodium nitrate Calcium carbonate Aluminum sulfate Magnesium nitrite

25 Naming Polyatomic Ionic compounds Name of metal (cation) + Name of anion FeCO 3 Fe 2 (CO 3 ) 3 Iron(II) carbonate Iron(III) carbonate

26 Naming acids Acids: sour They produce H + (proton) in water.

27 Naming binary acids Hydro -ide ion -ic acid Anion : + HFF - : flouride ionHydroflouric acid HClCl - : chloride ionHydrochloric acid H2SH2SS 2- : sulfuride ionHydrosulfuric acid

28 Naming Polyatomic Acids Anion: -ite ion -ous acid -ate ion -ic acid HNO 3 NO 3 - :Nitrate ionNitric acid HNO 2 NO 2 - :Nitrite ionNitrous acid H 2 CO 3 CO 3 2- :Carbonate ionCarbonic acid H 2 SO 3 SO 3 2- :Sulfurite ionSulfurous acid


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