Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

NOMENCLATURE Chapter 5. Charges on Common Ions +1 +2+3 -4-3-2.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "NOMENCLATURE Chapter 5. Charges on Common Ions +1 +2+3 -4-3-2."— Presentation transcript:

1 NOMENCLATURE Chapter 5

2 Charges on Common Ions

3 Table 5.1: Common Simple Cations and Anions

4 Chemical Bonds - the forces that hold two or more atoms together to form a compound. - the two types of chemical bonds are: 1. Ionic bonds. NaCl KI 2. Covalent bonds. H 2 O CH 4 metal & nonmetal two nonmetals

5 Chemical Bonds (continued) Ionic Bonding: Force of attraction between oppositely charged ions. - Chemical compounds must have a net charge of zero. 1. Both cations and anions must be present. 2. The number of cations and anions must be such that the net charge is zero.

6 Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds Charge must equal zero for each compound. 1+ & 1- = 0 2+ & 2- = 0 6+ & 6- = 0

7 COMPOUNDS FORMED FROM IONS CATION + ANION ---> COMPOUND COMPOUND Na + + Cl - --> NaCl A neutral compound requires equal number of (+) and (-) charges.

8 Chemical Bonds (continued) Covalent bonding: results from atoms sharing electrons. Molecule: a collection of covalently- bonded atoms. H 2 O C 12 H 22 O 11

9 Common Names sugar of lead blue vitriol quicklime Epsom salts milk of magnesia gypsum laughing gas lead(II) acetate copper(II) sulfate calcium oxide magnesium sulfate magnesium hydroxide calcium sulfate dinitrogen monoxide

10 Common Names - Exceptions H 2 O = water, steam, ice NH 3 = ammonia CH 4 = methane NaCl = table salt C 12 H 22 O 11 = table sugar

11 Types of Cations Type I Cations: u only one charge u Group I ions u Group II ions u Aluminum u Cadmium u Silver u Zinc u Memorize Table 5.1, page 129 Type II Cations: more than one chargemore than one charge transition elementstransition elements elements under the stairstepelements under the stairstep Memorize Table 5.2, page 133Memorize Table 5.2, page 133

12 Metal Cations Type I u Metals that can only have one possible charge u Determine charge by position on the Periodic Table Type II u Metals that can have more than one possible charge u Determine metal cation’s charge from the charge on anion

13 Naming Compounds 1. Cation first, then anion 2. Monatomic cation = name of the element Ca 2+ = calcium ion 3. Monatomic anion = root + -ide Cl  = chloride CaCl 2 = calcium chloride Binary Ionic Compounds:

14 Naming Compounds (continued) - metal forms more than one cation - use Roman numeral in name CuCl 2 Cu 2+ is cation CuCl 2 = Copper (II) chloride Cupric chloride Cupric chloride Binary Ionic Compounds (Type II):

15 Naming Compounds (continued) - Compounds between two nonmetals - First element in the formula is named first. - Second element is named as if it were an anion. - Use prefixes (Table 5.3 on page 137). - Never use mono- for the first element. P 2 O 5 = diphosphorus pentoxide Binary compounds (Type III):

16 Prefixes Drop last “a” in the prefix if the name begins with vowel octa-8 hepta-7 hexa-6 penta-5 tetra-4 tri-3 di-2 mono- (not used on first nonmetal) 1 PrefixSubscript

17 Figure 5.1: A flow chart for naming binary compounds.

18 Common Nomenclature Mistakes Compounds: SO 3 --Sulfur trioxide NO 2 -- Nitrogen dioxide NO 3 -- Nitrogen trioxide NH 3 -- Ammonia Polyatomic ions: SO Sulfite ion NO Nitrite ion NO Nitrate ion NH Ammonium ion

19 MOLECULAR FORMULAS Formula for glycine is C 2 H 5 NO 2 In one molecule there are u 2 C atoms u 5 H atoms u 1 N atom u 2 O atoms

20 Molecular Modeling Ball & stick Space-filling Drawing of glycine

21 POLYATOMIC IONS Groups of atoms with a charge. MEMORIZE the names and formulas in Table 5.4, page 142.

22 Table 5.4: Names of Common Polyatomic Ions

23 Patterns for Polyatomic Ions -ate ion u chlorate = ClO 3 - -ate ion plus 1 O  same charge, per- prefix u perchlorate = ClO 4 - -ate ion minus 1 O  same charge, -ite suffix u chlorite = ClO 2 - -ate ion minus 2 O  same charge, hypo- prefix, -ite suffix u hypochlorite = ClO -

24 Some Common Polyatomic Ions NH 4 + ammonium ion One of the few common polyatomic cations

25 Some Common Polyatomic Ions CO 3 2- carbonate ion HCO 3 - bicarbonate ion - hydrogen carbonate ion - hydrogen carbonate ion

26 SO 4 2- sulfate ion SO 3 2- sulfite ion Some Common Polyatomic Ions

27 NO 3 - nitrate ion NO 2 - nitrite ion Some Common Polyatomic Ions

28 Figure 5.2: Overall strategy for naming chemical compounds

29 NOMENCLATURE OF COMPOUNDS Binary -- 2 elementsTernary -- (3 elements) - Ionic (metal ion + polyatomic ion) Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 -- calcium phosphate FeSO 4 -- iron (II) sulfate -- ferrous sulfate Type I - Ionic (Type I metal + nonmetal) Group I, II, Al +3, Ag 1+, Cd 2+, & Zn 2+ NaCl -- Sodium Chloride Type II - Ionic (Type II metal + nonmetal) All other metals Fe 2 S 3 -- iron (III) sulfide -- ferric sulfide Type III - covalent (2 nonmetals) CO 2 -- carbon dioxide

30 Binary Acids made up of two elements -- hydrogen and a nonmetal made up of two elements -- hydrogen and a nonmetal named by using:named by using: prefix hydro + root of nonmetal + ic + acid HCl -- hydrochloric acid H 2 Se -- hydroselenic acid

31 Table 5.5: Names of Acids that Do Not Contain Oxygen

32 Ternary Acids (oxyacids) contain three elements -- hydrogen, nonmetal, and oxygen.contain three elements -- hydrogen, nonmetal, and oxygen. most oxygenper + root of nonmetal + ic + acidmost oxygenper + root of nonmetal + ic + acid less oxygenroot of nonmetal + ic + acidless oxygenroot of nonmetal + ic + acid less oxygenroot of nonmetal + ous + acidless oxygenroot of nonmetal + ous + acid least oxygenhypo + root of nonmetal + ous + acidleast oxygenhypo + root of nonmetal + ous + acid

33 Ternary Acids (continued) HBrO 4 perbromic acid HBrO 3 bromic acid HBrO 2 bromous acid HBrO hypobromous acid H 3 PO 4 phosphoric acid H 3 PO 3 phosphorous acid H 3 PO 2 hypophosphorus acid

34 Figure 5.3: A flow chart for naming acids

35 Salt Nomenclature (continued) Ternary salts ( metal and polyatomic ion) name of positive ion + root of nonmetal + ate or ite If the salt comes from an ic acid, change ic to ate. H 2 CO 3 carbonic acid Na 2 CO 3 sodium carbonate H 3 PO 4 phosphoric acid K 3 PO 4 potassium phosphate If the salt comes from an ous acid, change ous to ite. H 2 SO 3 sulfurous acid Li 2 SO 3 lithium sulfite HClO hypochlorous acid NaClO sodium hypochlorite

36 Chemical Nomenclature Name each of the following: CuClHgO Fe 2 O 3 MnO 2 PbCl 2 CrCl 3 copper(I) chloride cuprous chloride mercury(II) oxide mercuric oxide iron(III) oxide ferric oxide manganese(IV) oxide manganic oxide lead(II) chloride plumbous chloride chromium(III) chloride chromic chloride

37 Chemical Nomenclature Name each of the following: P 4 O 10 N2O5N2O5N2O5N2O5 Li 2 O 2 Ti(NO 3 ) 4 SO 3 SF 6 O2F2O2F2O2F2O2F2 tetraphosphorus decoxide dinitrogen pentoxide lithium peroxide titanium(IV) nitrate sulfur trioxide sulfur hexafluoride dioxygen difluoride

38 Writing the Formulas from the Names For Type III compounds, use the prefixes to determine the subscripts For Type I, Type II, polyatomic Compounds and Acids u Determine the ions present u Determine the charges on the cation and anion u Balance the charges to get the subscripts

39 Determining the Charge on a Cation – Au 2 S 3 Determine the charge on the anion Au 2 S 3 - the anion is S, since it is in Group 6A, its charge is -2 Determine the total negative charge since there are 3 S in the formula, the total negative charge is -6 Determine the total positive charge since the total negative charge is -6, the total positive charge is +6 Divide by the number of cations since there are 2 Au in the formula & the total positive charge is +6, each Au has a +3 charge


Download ppt "NOMENCLATURE Chapter 5. Charges on Common Ions +1 +2+3 -4-3-2."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google