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Nomenclature Chapter 4. Nomenclature = Naming Common names were created before there was a system in place Common names were created before there was.

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Presentation on theme: "Nomenclature Chapter 4. Nomenclature = Naming Common names were created before there was a system in place Common names were created before there was."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nomenclature Chapter 4

2 Nomenclature = Naming Common names were created before there was a system in place Common names were created before there was a system in place More than 4 million chemical compounds, memorizing names would be impossible More than 4 million chemical compounds, memorizing names would be impossible A system makes it much easier A system makes it much easier

3 Binary Compounds Compounds composed of 2 elements Compounds composed of 2 elements 2 types 2 types Metal and Nonmetal Metal and Nonmetal Two Nonmetals Two Nonmetals

4 4.1 Naming Compounds That Contain a Metal and a Nonmetal Remember: When metals and nonmetals combine the compound contains ions Remember: When metals and nonmetals combine the compound contains ions Resulting substance is a binary ionic compound Resulting substance is a binary ionic compound Contain cation and anion in that order Contain cation and anion in that order To name them simply name ions To name them simply name ions Cation is element name Cation is element name Anion is root of element name with –ide at end Anion is root of element name with –ide at end NaCl is sodium chloride NaCl is sodium chloride

5 Certain metal ions form only one cation Certain metal ions form only one cation Na is always Na + Na is always Na + Cs is always Cs + Cs is always Cs + Ca is always Ca 2+ Ca is always Ca 2+ We will call these Type I cations and they form Type I binary compounds We will call these Type I cations and they form Type I binary compounds Other metal ions can form more than one cation Other metal ions can form more than one cation Cr can form Cr 2+ or Cr 3+ Cr can form Cr 2+ or Cr 3+ Lower oxidation number will end in –ous Lower oxidation number will end in –ous Higher oxidation number will end in -ic Higher oxidation number will end in -ic We will call these Type II cations and they form Type II binary compounds We will call these Type II cations and they form Type II binary compounds

6 Type I Binary Ionic Compounds Cation always named first, anion second Cation always named first, anion second When a single element is the cation we simply use its name When a single element is the cation we simply use its name When a single element is the anion take the root and add –ide When a single element is the anion take the root and add –ide Examples Examples NaI is sodium iodide NaI is sodium iodide CaO is calcium oxide CaO is calcium oxide What would KI be? Potassium iodide What would KI be? Potassium iodide What would CsBr be? Cesium bromide What would CsBr be? Cesium bromide Do Practice problems on page 87 Do Practice problems on page 87

7 Type II Binary Ionic Compounds Need to specify which cation is used Need to specify which cation is used Is it Cr 2+ or Cr 3+ ? Is it Cr 2+ or Cr 3+ ? We will use Roman Numerals in name We will use Roman Numerals in name So if it is FeCl 2 which Iron is it? Fe 2+ (the ferrous ion) or Fe 3+ (the ferric ion)? So if it is FeCl 2 which Iron is it? Fe 2+ (the ferrous ion) or Fe 3+ (the ferric ion)? we know Chlorine has a 1- oxidation number so 2 (1-) = 2-, what must Fe be to cancel this out? we know Chlorine has a 1- oxidation number so 2 (1-) = 2-, what must Fe be to cancel this out? Fe must be 2+ so it is Fe 2+ Fe must be 2+ so it is Fe 2+ So name would be Iron II chloride So name would be Iron II chloride Table 4.2 page 90 Table 4.2 page 90

8 4.2 Binary Compounds That Contain Only Nonmetals (Type III) Write first element Write first element Write second element Write second element Add prefix to 1 st element (but not mono-) Add prefix to 1 st element (but not mono-) Add prefix to 2 nd element Add prefix to 2 nd element Why do we do this? Why do we do this? NO, N 2 O 5, and NO 2 would all be nitrogen oxide under the normal rules NO, N 2 O 5, and NO 2 would all be nitrogen oxide under the normal rules Instead they are Nitrogen monoxide, Dinitrogen pentoxide, and Nitrogen dioxide Instead they are Nitrogen monoxide, Dinitrogen pentoxide, and Nitrogen dioxide one –mono two - di three - tri four - tetra five - penta six - hexa seven - hepta eight - octa nine - nona ten - deca

9 4.3 Review Type I Type I metal and nonmetal metal and nonmetal Metal cation has only 1 oxidation number Metal cation has only 1 oxidation number Type II Type II Metal and nonmetal Metal and nonmetal Metal cation has more than 1 oxidation number Metal cation has more than 1 oxidation number Tell which ox. # it is with roman numerals Tell which ox. # it is with roman numerals Type III Type III Nonmetal and nonmetal Nonmetal and nonmetal Use prefixes to name Use prefixes to name

10 Naming Binary Compounds Binary Compound? Metal Present Metal forms more than 1 cation Type II determine charge and use Roman Numerals Metal forms only 1 cation Type I Use element name for cation No Metal Present Type III Use Prefixes

11 4.4 naming Compounds That Contain Polyatomic Ions FIRST: Copy Table 4.4 on page 100 into notes FIRST: Copy Table 4.4 on page 100 into notes Polyatomic ion – a charged group of atoms bound together Polyatomic ion – a charged group of atoms bound together Oxyanion – oxygen and another element Oxyanion – oxygen and another element Smallest – hypo- Smallest – hypo- Lower - -ite (If only 2, smallest) Lower - -ite (If only 2, smallest) Higher - - ate (If only 2, largest) Higher - - ate (If only 2, largest) Largest – hyper Largest – hyper

12 When naming compounds with polyatomic ions follow same rules but anion (second part of formula) is a polyatomic ion just name it When naming compounds with polyatomic ions follow same rules but anion (second part of formula) is a polyatomic ion just name it

13 4.5 Naming Acids Acid – produces H+ ions (protons) in water Acid – produces H+ ions (protons) in water Tastes sour (not a good test) Tastes sour (not a good test) It is like a molecule with a H+ attached to an anion It is like a molecule with a H+ attached to an anion If no oxygen If no oxygen Hydro- in front, -ic at end Hydro- in front, -ic at end HCl is Hydrochloric acid HCl is Hydrochloric acid If oxygen If oxygen Root of central element of anion or anion name with – ic or –ous Root of central element of anion or anion name with – ic or –ous Anion ends in –ate then replace with –ic Anion ends in –ate then replace with –ic Anion ends with –ite then replace with -ous Anion ends with –ite then replace with -ous

14 4.6 Writing Formulas From Names You know how to do this You know how to do this


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