2TodayExamNutritional ergogenic aidsPharmacalogical ergogenic aids
3Exam 9/11/07 Afternoon Check exam timetable Must be done on this day 20 M/C- 1 mark each8 short answer, 10 marks each
4Ergogenic aids Substances and procedures believed to improve physical work capacityPhysiologic functionAthletic performance
5Ergogenic aids 1- stimulate CNS 2- increase storage or availability of a limited substrate3-Supplemental fuel source4- reducing or neutralising performance inhibiting metabolic by-products5- facilitating recovery from strenuous exerciseDISCLAIMER I AM INFORMING NOT RECCOMENDING
7Nutritional Ergogenic Aids Buffering solutionsPhosphate loadingAnti-cortisol−producing compoundsGlutaminePhosphatidyl serineChromiumCreatine
8Buffering solutionsIn exercise seconds, anaerobic energy transfer is usedSignificantlyIncreases lactate productiondecreases intracellular pH ( towards acidic)These decreases in pHinhibit energy transferreduce ability of muscle fibres to contractBuffering solutions guard against acidosis (decrease in pH)high intensity maximal exercise (anaerobic work) involves the breakdown of carbohydrates (more specifically stored glucose referred to as glycogen).glycogen stores are rapidly depleted resulting dramatic increase in H+ concentrations and lactic acid in both the muscle and blooddramatic increase in H+ concentration that causes a progressive increase in the acidity of the muscle cells (intracellular environment), which in turn results in muscular fatigue and an inability to maintain high exercise intensities.decreased pH that inhibits muscular function and causes the muscles to begin to fatigue.As exercise progresses various buffering mechanisms function to neutralize this negative consequence of an increased H+ concentration and a decreased pH balance.when the intracellular buffering capacity is exceeded, H+ diffuses into the blood by attaching itself to the lactic acid molecule, causing a drop in intracellular pH.This in turn stimulates extracellular buffering mechanisms of which bicarbonate (HCO3-) is one of the most effective constituents.the natural stores of bicarbonate in the body are relatively small.Therefore intake of sodium bicarbonate is believed to increase the ability of the body to dispose of additional H+ ions and keep working at high intensities for a longer period of time
9Sodium bicarbonateBenefits athletes in events at near maximum intensity for 1-7 minutesAcute loading (one time dose) – dosage = 300 mg per kg bodyweightincrease total work (joules) from %increase peak power output (watts) by %Chronic loading mg/kg body mass in 4 doses every 3-4 hours for 5-6 days.Bicarbonate loading might enhance the performance of athletic events that are otherwise limited by excess H+ accumulation. These include events conducted at near maximum intensity for the duration of 1-7 minutes (for example m running, m swimming, kayaking, rowing, and canoeing events) at intensities that fall between 80 and 125% of peak maximal oxygen uptake. Sports that are dependent on repeated anaerobic bursts may also benefit from bicarbonate loading.
10BenefitsAlso look at table of increases in performance time on page 128 pf text- 2.9 second improvement in 800 m race time is the equivalent of 19m which could make you come first instead of last!
11Side effects Nausea, bloating, vomiting, and diarrhea Most common when loading includes the NaHCO3 water mixture.If athletes drink large quantities of water in acute loading method, the gastrointestinal distress is often reducedNaHCO3 gelatin capsules help to effectively reduce or eliminate the likelihood of gastrointestinal discomfort.
12Another buffer- Phosphate loading Effectiveness not well supportedIncreasing intra and extra cellular phosphate levels:Increases ATP phosphorylationIncreases myocardial functional capacity increased aerobic performanceIncreased o2 extraction to muscle
13CreatineRemember Cr was needed to bond to the spare phosphate in the ATP-PC systemTherefore Cr is critical in replenishing ATP and for all out effort lasting up to 10 secondsMost popular ergogenic aid used among NCAA college athletes (USA)Found in meat, fish and poultrySold as a supplement in powder, tablet, capsule, liquid (dosage = 6-30g)Not considered to be illegal PED
14 rate of CrP resynthesis muscular power hydration CrP + ADP ATP + Cr Creatine(Cr) Anaerobic capacity rate of CrP resynthesis muscular power hydration lean body massCan turnoover ATP fasterGreater hypertrophy of muscle fibres in response to resistance trainingFaster recovery from exercise
15Effects of creatine loading versus placebo on total work accomplished during long term (80 minutes) repetitive sprint-cycling performance
16How Creatine might assist in intense, short term exercise and the exercise training response
17Side effects of Creatine Increase in muscle swelling due to the storage of more water around the muscles may increase the chances of injury, especially between muscle and tendon connectionsNauseaCramping possibly due to water retentionDizziness if excessive quantities takenDiarrhoeaEven less is known about the long term effects of creatine supplementation- especially on cardiac muscles and the kidney (as excess must be excreted in urine)
18Young athletes and creatine 148 male college recreational resistance trainers (USA) (Williams et al., 2004)47.3 % reported creatine use and74.3 % of the creatine users were also using protein in an effort to increase muscle bulkLaBotz, & Smith, 1999 NCAA athletes68% of athletes had heard of creatine and 28% reported using it.48% of men had used creatine, and 4% of women.all men's teams had at least 30% use1/3 had first used it in high school
20Sources of information LaBotz & Smith, 1999 FriendsTeam matesTrainersCoachOver 80% of athletes using creatine said that someone had specifically recommended it to them
21Anti-cortisol producing compounds Cortisol decreases amino acid transport to cells which blunts anabolismExcessive amounts cortisol protein breakdown and muscle atrophyGlutamine and Phosphatidylserine (PS) produce an anti-cortisol effect
22GlutamineMost abundant naturally occurring, non-essential amino acid in bodyFood sources of glutamine include meat, poultry, fish, beans, eggs, and dairy products.1) A substrate for DNA synthesis.2) Major role in protein synthesis3) Promotes muscle growth and decreases muscle catabolism.4) Precursor for rapidly dividing immune cells, thus aiding in immune function.5) Alternative source of fuel for the brain and helps to block cortisol-induced protein catabolism.Also has various effects in reducing healing time after operations. Hospital waiting times after abdominal surgery are reduced by providing parenteral nutrition regimens containing amounts of glutamine to patients
23Chromium Often sold as a “fat burner” Insulin takes glucose to storage.Chromium stimulates the activity of insulin, aiding glucose and fat metabolism,Found in high concentrations in foods such as meats, whole grains, cheese, mushrooms, prunes, nuts, asparagus, beer, and wineBenefits unclearSome studies have found weight loss and some weight gain among normal weight and obese participantsSide effects = deficiencies other inerals incl iron
24Ginseng Asian medicine Claims to build energy and reduce stress Often $$$Anecdotal ergogenic effectNo empirical evidence
25EphedrineAmphetamine like compound, from the same source but weaker than pseudoephedrineFrom ephedra plantCommonly used as a stimulant, appetite suppressant, concentration aid, decongestantAthlete deaths linked to use- heart attacke, cardia arrythmia, stroke, seizuresThe U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) advises consumers to stop using dietary supplements containing ephedra. In order to protect consumers, the FDA published a final rule on April 12, 2004, that bans the sale of dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.After a careful review of the available evidence about the risks and benefits of ephedra in supplements, the FDA found that these supplements present an unreasonable risk of illness or injury to consumers. The data showed little evidence of ephedra's effectiveness, except for short-term weight loss, while confirming that the substance raises blood pressure and stresses the heart. The increased risk of heart problems and strokes negates any benefits of weight loss.
26Green Tea Oprah Winfrey Show “Oprah: Now I've read in your book that you said if I just replaced coffee with green tea instead, that I could lose 10 pounds in six weeks.Dr. Perricone: Absolutely.Oprah: Now really. How could that -- what is the big deal about this?Dr Perricone: Coffee has organic acids that raise your blood sugar, raise insulin. Insulin puts a lock on body fat. When you switch over to green tea, you get your caffeine, you're all set, but you will drop your insulin levels and body fat will fall very rapidly. So 10 pounds in six weeks, I will guarantee it.Oprah: I'm gonna do that. OK. That is so good! Whoo! That is great.”
27328 kj = 80 calories = 4/5 of a tim tam Duloo et al Efficacy of a green tea extract rich in catechin polyphenols and caffeine in increasing 24-h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humansArgued that increases in BMR by increase in thermoegenesis leads to weight lossThermogenesis contributes 8–10% of daily EE in a typical sedentary man (760–950 kJ in our subjects)4% increase in 24-h EE (328 kJ) due to the green tea extract would extrapolate to a 35–43% increase in the thermogenesis compartment of daily EE.328 kj = 80 calories = 4/5 of a tim tam
28Saper et al. 200450 individual dietary supplements and more than 125 commercial combination products are available for weight loss.Currently, no weight-loss supplements meet criteria for recommended use.
31Pharmacologic Aids to Performance CaffeineAlcoholAnabolic steroidsDHEAAmphetamines
32Caffeine Enhances endurance performance by Increasing time to fatigueReducing perception of effortMobilizing FFAStimulating secretion of epinephrineMay impair endurance performance byStimulating diuresis leading to dehydrationMay improve sprint & power performancesEffects are at their peak min after intake
33CAFFEINE Stimulant to CNS Improved exercise endurance Diuresis Lipolysis Incidence of cardiac arrythmiasGenerally agreed that the greatest ergogenic effect comes from the mobilisation of FFA so that fats are used for fuel rather than glucose. Fats are able to generate a far greater number of ATP per molecule and are therefore a far more efficient energy sourceAlso conserves muscle and liver glycogen stores for use later on in performance Muscle glycogenolysis
35Split times for each time trial for caffeine and placeo
36Alcohol Provides 7 kCal per gram Ergogenic effects Ergolytic effects May reduce tension and anxietyProvides no known ergogenic effects on strength, speed, power, or endurance performancesErgolytic effectsInhibits metabolismSuppresses ADH secretion, leading to diuresis and dehydrationImpairs balance, memory, visual perception, speech, reaction time and motor coordinationAlcohol is a depressant and is not known to improve sports performance
38Anabolic Steroids Synthetic derivatives of testosterone Designed to maximize anabolic effectsEnhance protein synthesisInhibit protein degradationIncrease skeletal muscle hypertrophy and strengthIn the case of Marion Jones, who recently admitted to lying when she said she wasn’t taking performance enhancing drugs-(from news.com.au)Jones said she took steroids from September 2000 to July 2001 and said she was told by her then-coach Trevor Graham that she was taking flaxseed oil when it was actually "the clear" - a designer steroid. "I consumed this substance several times before the Sydney Olympics and continued using it after," Jones told the judge. "By November 2003, I realised he was giving me performance-enhancing drugs." She said she "felt different, trained more intensely" and experienced "faster recovery and better times" while using the substance. "He told me to put it under my tongue for a few seconds and swallow it," she said. "He told me not to tell anyone." Jones was released on her own recognisance and was due back in court January 11 for sentencing.
39Examples of Anabolic Steroids Oral, patches, injectableAnavarAnadrolDianabolEquipoiseTestosteroneWinstrol“the clear”- Marion JonesOral Steroids: Oral, fat-soluble steroids can be detected in the body for several weeks or months after a person stops taking them.Injectable Steroids: Injectable anabolics are injected into muscle tissue. They are slowly released from the muscles into the rest of the body, and may be detectable for months after last use. The body tolerates the injectable steroids more effectively than the oral steroids. Long-term steroid abusers use them for this reason.Stacking = taking both oral and injectable in the belief that the different androgens have different effectsPyramiding = progressively increasing the dose in 6-12 week cycles. Then alter dosage or combine with other drugs to avoid detection
40Many studies are not conducted under truly scientific conditions
41Associated Side Effects of Anabolic Steroids CardiovascularIncreased LDL-CDecreased HDL-CHypertensionCNSMood swingsViolent behaviorDepressionHepaticDecreased Liver enzymesJaundiceHepatic tumorsEndocrineAltered glucose toleranceDecreased FSH, LHAcneMost of these side effects are dose-dependent, the most common being elevated blood pressure, especially in those with pre-existing hypertension,and harmful changes in cholesterol levels: some steroids cause an increase in bad cholesterol (LDL) and a decrease in good cholesterol (HDL) .Anabolic steroids such as testosterone also increase the risk of cardiovascular disease or coronary artery disease.Acne is fairly common among anabolic steroid users, mostly due to stimulation of the sebaceous glands by increased testosterone levels.Conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) can accelerate the rate of premature baldness for those who are genetically predisposed.Other side effects can include alterations in the structure of the heart, such as enlargement and thickening of the left ventricle, which impairs its contraction and relaxation.Possible effects of these alterations in the heart are hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, congestive heart failure, heart attacks, and sudden cardiac death.High doses of oral anabolic steroid compounds can cause liver damage as the steroids are metabolized (17α-alkylated) in the digestive system to increase their bioavailability and stability.When high doses of such steroids are used for long periods, the liver damage may be severe and lead to liver cancer.There are also gender-specific side effects of anabolic steroids.MalesDevelopment of breast tissue in males, a condition called gynecomastia (which is usually caused by high levels of circulating estrogen), may arise because of increased conversion of testosterone to estrogen by the enzyme aromatase.Reduced sexual function and temporary infertility can also occur in males.testicular atrophy, caused by the suppression of natural testosterone levels, which inhibits production of sperm (most of the mass of the testes is developing sperm). This side effect is temporary: the size of the testicles usually returns to normal within a few weeks of discontinuing anabolic steroid use as normal production of sperm resumes.Female-specific side effects includeincreases in body hair,deepening of the voice,enlarged clitoris, andtemporary decreases in menstrual cycles.When taken during pregnancy, anabolic steroids can affect fetal development by causing the development of male features in the female fetus and female features in the male fetus.A number of severe side effects can occur if adolescents use anabolic steroids. For example, the steroids may prematurely stop the lengthening of bones (premature epiphyseal fusion through increased levels of estrogen metabolites), resulting in stunted growth. Other effects include, but are not limited to, accelerated bone maturation, increased frequency and duration of erections, and premature sexual development. Anabolic steroid use in adolescence is also correlated with poorer attitudes related to health.
42Reproductive Side Effects MaleTesticular atrophyGynecomastiaImpotenceEnlarged prostateMale pattern baldnessFemaleMenstrual dysfunctionAltered libidoClitoral enlargementDeepening voiceMasculinising (androgenic) effect of pure testosterone is somewhat muted, but still occurs, particularly in females.The biochemical functions of androgens such as testosterone are numerous. Processes affected include pubertal growth, sebaceous gland oil production, and sexuality (especially in fetal development).growth of the clitoris in females and the penis in male children (the adult penis does not grow even when exposed to high doses of androgens),increased growth of androgen-sensitive hair (pubic, beard, chest, and limb hair),increased vocal cord size, deepening the voice,increased libido,suppression of natural sex hormones, and impaired production of sperm97% of users experienced a minor side effect, 10% experienced severe ones such as liver damage
43Side effects (Larance & Degenhardt, 2007) 97% of users experienced a minor side effect, such as increased appetite10% experienced severe ones such as liver damage87% had some change in their mood and behaviourAnd 27% experienced mental health concerns95% exhibited at least one sign of dependanceAlso 5% shared needes, 35 had Hep b other risks of injecting drugsInformation predominantly gained through anonymous networks, internet, teammates. Rarely through Dr etc misinformation which could place them at risk
44Reasons for useFuller and LaFountain (1987) - athletes rationalise their use by trying to justify that using steroids caused no harm either to themselves or to others.Also, individuals perceived their competitors were taking anabolic drugs, so they needed to use to compete at the same level.
45Usage- university athletes Australia (NSW) = 0.3% of adults (>12 yrs)12-17 yr olds 3.6%males and 2.2% female athletes(Larance & Degenhardt, 2007)use ranges within each sport from0% to 5% in males0% to 1.5% in females, with anoverall mean prevalence of 1.1%(Green et al., 2001)These findings are believed to be underestimates due to fears of legal or personal consequences of using prohibited ergonomic aidsShift from using AAS designed for animals to human AAS
47DHEA Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) Relatively weak anabolic steroid hormone, similar to sex hormonesEffects unclearBanned substance at zero tolerance levelsProduced naturally in the body therefore difficult to detectHowever, a randomized placebo-controlled trial found that DHEA supplementation had no effect on lean body mass, strength, or testosterone levels.classed as an androgenic/anabolic steroid, the use of DHEA may produce the following side effects: hair loss, deepened voice, acne and infertility. However, the effects of DHEA use over a prolonged period are unclear.ur study showed that taking DHEA did not increase testosterone levels, but it did increase byproduct hormones-hormones that are potentially bad for the prostate,' says Rebecca Z. Sokol, M.D., M.P.H., professor of obstetrics and gynecology and medicine at the Keck School and the paper's senior author. 'Not only are users not getting the testosterone, but they may be getting something harmful in the process.' Sokol notes that interest in over-the-counter steroid supplement DHEA rose after baseball's former slugger Mark McGwire said he used androstenedione or 'andro,' a similar muscle-pumping pill to help achieve his record-setting home-run tally in Young athletes can easily obtain DHEA at health food stores and nutrition centers in 25-milligram (mg) and 50-mg doses, though many take 200 mg or more at a time.
49Growth HormoneA peptide hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary glandFacilitates tissue-building processes and normal growth and developmentEnhances lipolysis and elevates blood glucose levels
50Growth HormoneCombined with resistance training, GH may facilitate skeletal muscle hypertrophy and strength gainsAlso needs to be combined with testosteroneChronic elevations in GH are associated with acromegaly, hypertrophy of soft tissue organs, diabetes, elevated blood pressure, and atherosclerotic diseasesGrowth hormone boosts fluid not muscleAnna SallehABC Science Online Monday, 4 June 2007Fluid retention, not increased muscle mass, is what you can expect if you take human growth hormone to cheat at sport, a new study shows. So why are drug cheats taking it? (Cheating athletes who take human growth hormone to bulk up are wasting their time as well as risking their career and health, say Australian researchers. "Using high but safe doses, we were somewhat surprised to find that human growth hormone did not increase muscle mass or improve sports performance," says Nelson. "We believe that if there had been a dramatic effect [on muscle mass] we would have seen it." A total of 63 male and 33 female recreational athletes were recruited for the study. They were young and healthy and did 2-10 hours of exercise a week. They were given either a placebo or a dose of human growth hormone (hGH) four times the body's normal level. The men were also given testosterone or a combination of testosterone and hGH. After two months the study participants were tested for muscle mass, strength, power and endurance. While the results showed that human growth hormone increased body mass, this was not mainly because of increased muscle mass. "It put on fluid rather than muscle," says Nelson. The team could also find no benefits of hGH to sports performance. Testosterone effects While hGH did not have any effects on its own, when taken with testosterone, it did increase muscle mass, says Nelson. And it also increased one aspect of performance called sprint power, measured by how fast people could cycle on an exercise bike in short period of time. Nelson speculates there is a synergistic effect between the two hormones, which act through different mechanisms. The team also evaluated the effectiveness of a new hGH test they are helping to develop and found it could pick up the hormone several weeks after it was taken. The researchers found the test was more sensitive when hGH and testosterone were taken together.
51AmphetaminesStimulants to the CNS, but far more potent than caffeine.Mimic sympathetic hormones epinepherine and norepinepherineIncrease BP. HR, Cardiac outputBreathing rate, metabolism, blood glucoseEffects last for minutes
52Amphetamines Increase risk for; Physical/emotional dependency & toleranceHeadache, insomnia, nausea, dizziness,Inhibited pain reflexOver-exertion causing musculoskeletal injuryCardiac arrhythmias, Hypertensive responses to exerciseIrritability, ParanoiaTolerance- need more to achieve same effect
54Red blood cell reinfusion (blood doping) Practice of illicitly boosting the number of RBC in order to enhance athletic performance.Increased RBC can carry more O2, which can improve an athlete’s aerobic capacity and endurance.Two typeshomologous transfusion- RBC from a compatible donor are harvested, concentrated and then transfused into the athlete’s circulationautologous transfusion- the athlete's own RBCs are harvested well in advance of competition and then re-introduced before a critical event.By removing blood, the body is forced to generate more RBC, and so when the blood that was removed is put back in, you drammatically increase RBC levels.
55EPOPeptide hormone that occurs naturally in the body. EPO is released from the kidneys to stimulate increased red blood cell production in the bone marrow (erythropoiesis).Increased RBC = increased amount of oxygen the blood can carry to the body's muscles. may also increase the body's capacity to buffer lactic acid.Recombinant (artificially produced) EPO has a legitimate use in the treatment of anaemia in patients with diseases such as kidney disease, HIV and some cancers.Some athletes may use recombinant EPO to improve endurance performance or to improve recovery from anaerobic exercise.Taking EPO means same effect of increasing the number of RBC but without having to take blood etc. Hormonal blood dopingHematocrit >60% = dangerousThis drug, originally intended for anaemia patients, works by forcing the body to produce more red blood cells.With these extra cells, you can run farther, faster and for longer. The drawback, apart from the long term damage to your health, is that Epo can be detected in blood and urine tests. Since the introduction of these tests at the Sydney Olympics in 2000, the risk of getting caught has grown dramatically.The International Swimming Federation (Fina) decided in November 2002 that all swimmers who break world records must undergo tests for EPO. The move followed complaints from some top swimmers about the lack of tests.The Tour de France is again mired in controversy after leading rider Alexandre Vinokourov tested positive for blood doping.Dr Carrabre believes this is what was happening at the Winter Olympics."Blood transfusions are easy to do - all you need is a donor. In the case of Salt Lake City there were lots of rumours and suspicions that athletes were transfusing from live donors that were brought over," he said."So you didn't have the problem of transporting blood through customs, especially after 9/11 when security was so tight."Someone coming over as a tourist when in fact they are a living blood donor for an athlete is a lot easier than trying to bring in frozen blood through customs which would raise a few eyebrows."
56Side effectsIncrease in blood viscosity heart has to work harder to pump the thicker blood and the blood is more prone to clot.Increased risk of heart attack, stroke and blood clots in the lung.The risk is exacerbated by dehydration which often occurs during endurance exercise.
57How detected?Measure Hematocrit - the fraction of blood cells by volume that are RBCs.Normal HCT is 41-50% in adult men and 36-44% in adult womenNew way- compare the levels of mature and immature RBCs in an athlete's circulation.If a high number of mature RBCs is not accompanied by a high number of immature RBCs it suggests that the mature RBCs were artificially introduced by transfusion.Measuring hematocrit- any atypical reading is generally thoughtto indicate doping ie above 50% HCTA more recent and more sophisticated method of analysis, which has not yet reached the level of an official standard, is to
58SummaryGood to be aware of all of these to dispel myths/ talk kids out of using stuffGive correct informationBe careful with medicationsInvestigate fully