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Presentation on theme: "PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT OTHER PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT AIDS."— Presentation transcript:




4 ALCOHOL Alcohol has no real benefits to sport performance, although it does act as a carbohydrate (CHO) source of energy It does also provide a temporary psychological effect of calming, anxiety reduction and confidence building In the long-term alcohol is primarily a depressant and research shows that alcohol deceases both motor skill and physiological performance

5 SUMMARY OF ALCOHOL POSITIVE EFFECTSNEGATIVE EFFECTSUSERSLEGAL STATUS None. Although can make athlete feel more relaxed and confident. Impairs psychomotor performance. Speeds up dehydration. NoneLegal (over 18’s)

6 CAFFEINE Caffeine can be found in tea, coffee, cocoa, most soft drinks, many foods and in some medications Caffeine stimulates the central nervous system (CNS) and acts like a weak amphetamine (stimulant) which increases alertness, concentration and reaction time It produces increased breakdown of FFA’s, increases energy levels and lowers perception of effort Some athletes take in caffeine prior to exercise to increase the breakdown of FFA’s to save their important glycogen stores Caffeine is not banned, however, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) have a limit beyond which performers should not consume (around 7-8 strong cups of coffee) Caffeine also acts as a diuretic, increasing urine production and can increase dehydration and therefore heat regulation

7 SUMMARY OF CAFFEINE POSITIVE EFFECTSNEGATIVE EFFECTSUSERSLEGAL STATUS Can help improve mental alertness, concentration and reaction time. Reduce the feeling of fatigue, which allows athletes to exercise at higher intensities for longer. Increase the ability to utilise fats as a fuel and increase aerobic capacity. Increase the sensation of nervousness, anxiety and restlessness. Disturbed sleep. Risk of dehydration. It is addictive. Endurance athletes (for increase of fat metabolism) Legal

8 ANABOLIC STEROIDS These are synthetically copies of the naturally produced hormone testosterone, which promotes bone maturation and development of muscle mass They are thought to help repair muscle tissue and recovery after exercise They come in the form of tablets, capsules, a solution for injection and a cream or gel to rub into the skin The anabolic (building) effect is dependent on the dosage These are used for medical reasons for rehabilitation and muscle wastage diseases They are also commonly used by body builders and weight lifters

9 SUMMARY OF ANABOLIC STEROIDS POSITIVE EFFECTSNEGATIVE EFFECTSUSERSLEGAL STATU S Increase muscle mass and strength and may aid in recovery of high- intensity training. Affect the balance of sex hormones (women = reduction in breast size, hair growth and develop a deeper voice, Men = larger breasts, reduction in size of their penis). Acne, weak joints and aggressiveness. High intensity/ short duration athletes. Illegal

10 ANALGESICS/ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AGENTS Analgesics come in the form of non-steroidal aspirin and ibuprofen, but also in the form of steroidal cortisone injections (unless accompanied by a medical note) These relieve pain and act as anti-inflammatory agents to relieve swelling They are often taken in combination after soft tissue injuries to relieve pain/inflammation Analgesics and anti-inflammatory agents are often used prior to competition to mask pain in order to allow performers to compete If used in this way there is likely to be further and more severe injuries

11 MASKING AGENTS These all have the same aim, which is to prevent the identification of other agents, normally a banned illegal agent If masking agents are detected they are classified as a positive test in the same way as the substance they would be hiding would have done Diuretics are a common masking agent that increase urine production to help athletes to flush steroids out of their system



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