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Ergogenic aids EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance.

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Presentation on theme: "Ergogenic aids EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ergogenic aids EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

2 Lab submission Labs due week 13 Lab groups 1, 2,
Hand in after Monday’s lecture (11-12) to my office (ed. 3.11)  pick up before 4 pm Monday Lab groups 3, 4, 5 Hand in to my office wednesday 9am-10 am Pick up before 4 pm Wednesday EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

3 Exam Monday 3rd November Morning 9am Check exam timetable
Must be done on this day 40 M/C- ½ mark each 8 medium answer, 10 marks each EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

4 Ergogenic aids Substances and procedures believed to improve
Physical work capacity Physiologic function Athletic performance EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

5 Ergogenic aids 1- stimulate CNS
2- increase storage or availability of a limited substrate 3-Supplemental fuel source 4- reducing or neutralising performance inhibiting metabolic by-products 5- facilitating recovery from strenuous exercise DISCLAIMER I AM INFORMING NOT RECCOMENDING EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

6 Pharmacologic Aids to Performance
Caffeine Amphetamines Alcohol EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

7 Caffeine Enhances endurance performance by
Increased alertness Increasing time to fatigue Reducing perception of effort Mobilizes FFA spares glycogen Stimulating secretion of epinephrine Decreased reaction time May improve sprint & power performances Effects are at their peak min after intake Generally agreed that the greatest ergogenic effect comes from the mobilisation of FFA so that fats are used for fuel rather than glucose. Fats are able to generate a far greater number of ATP per molecule and are therefore a far more efficient energy source Also conserves muscle and liver glycogen stores for use later on in performance EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

8 Caffeine- Side effects
May impair endurance performance by Stimulating diuresis leading to dehydration Nervousness Restlessness Insomnia Headache Gastrointestinal problems Tremours EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

9 Split times for each time trial for caffeine and placeo
EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

10 Stimulants to the CNS, but far more potent than caffeine.
Amphetamines Speed, ephedrine, pseudoephedrine Stimulants to the CNS, but far more potent than caffeine. Mimic sympathetic hormones epinepherine and norepinepherine -Increase BP. HR, Cardiac output -Breathing rate, metabolism, blood glucose Baseball players in USA often caught using amphetamines – anyone requiring alertness, speed, power Mobilises FFA and less time to fatigue, but doesn’t increase Vo2 max- mostly perception of fatigue rather than actual aerobic endurance. EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

11 Amphetamines- Side effects
Increase risk for; Physical/emotional dependency & tolerance Headache, insomnia, nausea, dizziness, Inhibited pain reflexOver-exertion causing musculoskeletal injury Cardiac arrhythmias, Hypertensive responses to exercise Irritability, Paranoia Tolerance- need more to achieve same effect EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

12 Alcohol Provides 7 kCal per gram Ergogenic effects Ergolytic effects
May reduce tension and anxiety Provides no known ergogenic effects on strength, speed, power, or endurance performances Ergolytic effects Inhibits metabolism Suppresses ADH secretion, leading to diuresis and dehydration Impairs balance, memory, visual perception, speech, reaction time and motor coordination Alcohol is a depressant and is not known to improve sports performance Inhibits metabolism  body doesn’t use as many calories for each movement, and in particular, fat metabolism is slowed. EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

13 Anabolic steroids Human growth Hormone
Hormonal Anabolic steroids Human growth Hormone EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

14 Androgenic-Anabolic Steroids
Synthetic derivatives of testosterone Designed to maximize anabolic effects Enhance protein synthesis Inhibit protein degradation Increase skeletal muscle hypertrophy and strength Basically develops muscle size and strength Not yet confirmed but may also help with muscle recovery so can increase training intensity on successive days In the case of Marion Jones, who recently admitted to lying when she said she wasn’t taking performance enhancing drugs- (from Jones said she took steroids from September 2000 to July 2001 and said she was told by her then-coach Trevor Graham that she was taking flaxseed oil when it was actually "the clear" - a designer steroid. "I consumed this substance several times before the Sydney Olympics and continued using it after," Jones told the judge. "By November 2003, I realised he was giving me performance-enhancing drugs." She said she "felt different, trained more intensely" and experienced "faster recovery and better times" while using the substance. "He told me to put it under my tongue for a few seconds and swallow it," she said. "He told me not to tell anyone." Jones was released on her own recognisance and was due back in court January 11 for sentencing. EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

15 Examples of Anabolic Steroids
Oral, patches, injectable Anavar Anadrol Dianabol Equipoise Testosterone Winstrol “the clear”- Marion Jones Oral Steroids: Oral, fat-soluble steroids can be detected in the body for several weeks or months after a person stops taking them. Injectable Steroids: Injectable anabolics are injected into muscle tissue. They are slowly released from the muscles into the rest of the body, and may be detectable for months after last use. The body tolerates the injectable steroids more effectively than the oral steroids. Long-term steroid abusers use them for this reason. Stacking = taking both oral and injectable in the belief that the different androgens have different effects Pyramiding = progressively increasing the dose in 6-12 week cycles. Then alter dosage or combine with other drugs to avoid detection EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

16 Many studies are not conducted under truly scientific conditions
EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

17 Associated Side Effects of Anabolic Steroids
Cardiovascular Increased LDL-C Decreased HDL-C Hypertension CNS Mood swings Violent behavior Depression Hepatic Decreased Liver enzymes Jaundice Hepatic tumors Endocrine Altered glucose tolerance Decreased FSH, LH Acne Most of these side effects are dose-dependent, the most common being elevated blood pressure, especially in those with pre-existing hypertension,and harmful changes in cholesterol levels: some steroids cause an increase in bad cholesterol (LDL) and a decrease in good cholesterol (HDL) . Anabolic steroids such as testosterone also increase the risk of cardiovascular disease or coronary artery disease. Acne is fairly common among anabolic steroid users, mostly due to stimulation of the sebaceous glands by increased testosterone levels. Conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) can accelerate the rate of premature baldness for those who are genetically predisposed. Other side effects can include alterations in the structure of the heart, such as enlargement and thickening of the left ventricle, which impairs its contraction and relaxation. Possible effects of these alterations in the heart are hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, congestive heart failure, heart attacks, and sudden cardiac death. High doses of oral anabolic steroid compounds can cause liver damage as the steroids are metabolized (17α-alkylated) in the digestive system to increase their bioavailability and stability.When high doses of such steroids are used for long periods, the liver damage may be severe and lead to liver cancer. There are also gender-specific side effects of anabolic steroids. Males Development of breast tissue in males, a condition called gynecomastia (which is usually caused by high levels of circulating estrogen), may arise because of increased conversion of testosterone to estrogen by the enzyme aromatase. Reduced sexual function and temporary infertility can also occur in males. testicular atrophy, caused by the suppression of natural testosterone levels, which inhibits production of sperm (most of the mass of the testes is developing sperm). This side effect is temporary: the size of the testicles usually returns to normal within a few weeks of discontinuing anabolic steroid use as normal production of sperm resumes. Female-specific side effects include increases in body hair, deepening of the voice, enlarged clitoris, and temporary decreases in menstrual cycles. When taken during pregnancy, anabolic steroids can affect fetal development by causing the development of male features in the female fetus and female features in the male fetus. A number of severe side effects can occur if adolescents use anabolic steroids. For example, the steroids may prematurely stop the lengthening of bones (premature epiphyseal fusion through increased levels of estrogen metabolites), resulting in stunted growth. Other effects include, but are not limited to, accelerated bone maturation, increased frequency and duration of erections, and premature sexual development. Anabolic steroid use in adolescence is also correlated with poorer attitudes related to health. EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

18 Reproductive Side Effects
Male Testicular atrophy Gynecomastia Impotence Enlarged prostate Male pattern baldness Female Menstrual dysfunction Altered libido Clitoral enlargement Deepening voice Masculinising (androgenic) effect of pure testosterone is somewhat muted, but still occurs, particularly in females. The biochemical functions of androgens such as testosterone are numerous. Processes affected include pubertal growth, sebaceous gland oil production, and sexuality (especially in fetal development). growth of the clitoris in females and the penis in male children (the adult penis does not grow even when exposed to high doses of androgens), increased growth of androgen-sensitive hair (pubic, beard, chest, and limb hair), increased vocal cord size, deepening the voice, increased libido, suppression of natural sex hormones, and impaired production of sperm 97% of users experienced a minor side effect, 10% experienced severe ones such as liver damage EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

19 Side effects (Larance & Degenhardt, 2007)
97% of users experienced a minor side effect, such as increased appetite 10% experienced severe ones such as liver damage 87% had some change in their mood and behaviour And 27% experienced mental health concerns 95% exhibited at least one sign of dependance Also 5% shared needes, 35 had Hep b other risks of injecting drugs Information predominantly gained through anonymous networks, internet, teammates. Rarely through Dr etc misinformation which could place them at risk EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

20 Reasons for use Fuller and LaFountain (1987) - athletes rationalise their use by trying to justify that using steroids caused no harm either to themselves or to others. Also, individuals perceived their competitors were taking anabolic drugs, so they needed to use to compete at the same level. EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

21 Usage- university athletes
Australia (NSW) = 0.3% of adults (>12 yrs) 12-17 yr olds 3.6%males and 2.2% female athletes (Larance & Degenhardt, 2007) use ranges within each sport from 0% to 5% in males 0% to 1.5% in females, with an overall mean prevalence of 1.1% (Green et al., 2001) These findings are believed to be underestimates due to fears of legal or personal consequences of using prohibited ergonomic aids Shift from using AAS designed for animals to human AAS EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

22 Green et al., 2001 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

23 Human Growth Hormone A peptide hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland Facilitates tissue-building processes and normal growth and development Enhanced muscle and bone growth Enhances lipolysis (releases FFA’s) and elevates blood glucose levels Healing after musculoskeletal injuries EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

24 Growth Hormone Combined with resistance training, GH may facilitate skeletal muscle hypertrophy and strength gains Or just fluid retention Also needs to be combined with testosterone May be associated with age Growth hormone boosts fluid not muscle Anna SallehABC Science Online Monday, 4 June 2007 Fluid retention, not increased muscle mass, is what you can expect if you take human growth hormone to cheat at sport, a new study shows. So why are drug cheats taking it? (Cheating athletes who take human growth hormone to bulk up are wasting their time as well as risking their career and health, say Australian researchers. "Using high but safe doses, we were somewhat surprised to find that human growth hormone did not increase muscle mass or improve sports performance," says Nelson. "We believe that if there had been a dramatic effect [on muscle mass] we would have seen it." A total of 63 male and 33 female recreational athletes were recruited for the study. They were young and healthy and did 2-10 hours of exercise a week. They were given either a placebo or a dose of human growth hormone (hGH) four times the body's normal level. The men were also given testosterone or a combination of testosterone and hGH. After two months the study participants were tested for muscle mass, strength, power and endurance. While the results showed that human growth hormone increased body mass, this was not mainly because of increased muscle mass. "It put on fluid rather than muscle," says Nelson. The team could also find no benefits of hGH to sports performance. Testosterone effects While hGH did not have any effects on its own, when taken with testosterone, it did increase muscle mass, says Nelson. And it also increased one aspect of performance called sprint power, measured by how fast people could cycle on an exercise bike in short period of time. Nelson speculates there is a synergistic effect between the two hormones, which act through different mechanisms. The team also evaluated the effectiveness of a new hGH test they are helping to develop and found it could pick up the hormone several weeks after it was taken. The researchers found the test was more sensitive when hGH and testosterone were taken together. EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

25 Side effects Chronic elevations in GH are associated with acromegaly,
hypertrophy of soft tissue organs, diabetes, elevated blood pressure, and atherosclerotic diseases Acromegaly = enlargement of extremities EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

26 Physiological aids Blood doping Erythropoieten (EPO)
Bicarbonate loading Phosphate loading EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

27 Red blood cell reinfusion (blood doping)
Practice of illicitly boosting the number of RBC in order to enhance athletic performance. >Increased RBC can carry more O2, which can improve an athlete’s aerobic capacity and endurance. Two types homologous transfusion autologous transfusion By removing blood, the body is forced to generate more RBC, and so when the blood that was removed is put back in, you drammatically increase RBC levels. Two types homologous transfusion- RBC from a compatible donor are harvested, concentrated and then transfused into the athlete’s circulation autologous transfusion- the athlete's own RBCs are harvested well in advance of competition and then re-introduced before a critical event. EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

28 EPO Peptide hormone that occurs naturally in the body. EPO is released from the kidneys to stimulate increased red blood cell production in the bone marrow (erythropoiesis). improve endurance performance (Increased Vo2 max) improved recovery from anaerobic exercise. Taking EPO means same effect of increasing the number of RBC but without having to take blood etc. Hormonal blood doping Hematocrit >60% = dangerous This drug, originally intended for anaemia patients, works by forcing the body to produce more red blood cells. With these extra cells, you can run farther, faster and for longer. The drawback, apart from the long term damage to your health, is that Epo can be detected in blood and urine tests. Since the introduction of these tests at the Sydney Olympics in 2000, the risk of getting caught has grown dramatically. The International Swimming Federation (Fina) decided in November 2002 that all swimmers who break world records must undergo tests for EPO. The move followed complaints from some top swimmers about the lack of tests. The Tour de France is again mired in controversy after leading rider Alexandre Vinokourov tested positive for blood doping. Dr Carrabre believes this is what was happening at the Winter Olympics. "Blood transfusions are easy to do - all you need is a donor. In the case of Salt Lake City there were lots of rumours and suspicions that athletes were transfusing from live donors that were brought over," he said. "So you didn't have the problem of transporting blood through customs, especially after 9/11 when security was so tight. "Someone coming over as a tourist when in fact they are a living blood donor for an athlete is a lot easier than trying to bring in frozen blood through customs which would raise a few eyebrows." EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

29 Side effects Increase in blood viscosity  heart has to work harder to pump the thicker blood and the blood is more prone to clot. Increased risk of heart attack, stroke and blood clots in the lung. The risk is exacerbated by dehydration which often occurs during endurance exercise. Differing individual responses to EPO EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

30 How detected? Measure Hematocrit - the fraction of blood cells by volume that are RBCs. Normal HCT is 41-50% in adult men and 36-44% in adult women New way- compare the levels of mature and immature RBCs in an athlete's circulation. If a high number of mature RBCs is not accompanied by a high number of immature RBCs it suggests that the mature RBCs were artificially introduced by transfusion. Measuring hematocrit- any atypical reading is generally thoughtto indicate doping ie above 50% HCT A more recent and more sophisticated method of analysis, which has not yet reached the level of an official standard, is to EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

31 Buffering solutions In exercise seconds, anaerobic energy transfer is used Significantly Increases lactate production decreases intracellular pH ( towards acidic) These decreases in pH inhibit energy transfer reduce ability of muscle fibres to contract Buffering solutions guard against acidosis (decrease in pH) high intensity maximal exercise (anaerobic work) involves the breakdown of carbohydrates (more specifically stored glucose referred to as glycogen). glycogen stores are rapidly depleted  resulting dramatic increase in H+ concentrations and lactic acid in both the muscle and blood dramatic increase in H+ concentration that causes a progressive increase in the acidity of the muscle cells (intracellular environment), which in turn results in muscular fatigue and an inability to maintain high exercise intensities. decreased pH that inhibits muscular function and causes the muscles to begin to fatigue. As exercise progresses various buffering mechanisms function to neutralize this negative consequence of an increased H+ concentration and a decreased pH balance. when the intracellular buffering capacity is exceeded, H+ diffuses into the blood by attaching itself to the lactic acid molecule, causing a drop in intracellular pH. This in turn stimulates extracellular buffering mechanisms of which bicarbonate (HCO3-) is one of the most effective constituents. the natural stores of bicarbonate in the body are relatively small. Therefore intake of sodium bicarbonate is believed to increase the ability of the body to dispose of additional H+ ions and keep working at high intensities for a longer period of time EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

32 Sodium bicarbonate Benefits athletes in events at near maximum intensity for 1-7 minutes Acute loading (one time dose) – dosage = 300 mg per kg bodyweight increase total work (joules) from % increase peak power output (watts) by % Chronic loading mg/kg body mass in 4 doses every 3-4 hours for 5-6 days. Bicarbonate loading might enhance the performance of athletic events that are otherwise limited by excess H+ accumulation. These include events conducted at near maximum intensity for the duration of 1-7 minutes (for example m running, m swimming, kayaking, rowing, and canoeing events) at intensities that fall between 80 and 125% of peak maximal oxygen uptake. Sports that are dependent on repeated anaerobic bursts may also benefit from bicarbonate loading. EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

33 Benefits Also look at table of increases in performance time on page 128 pf text- 2.9 second improvement in 800 m race time is the equivalent of 19m which could make you come first instead of last! EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

34 Side effects Nausea, bloating, vomiting, and diarrhea
Most common when loading includes the NaHCO3 water mixture. If athletes drink large quantities of water in acute loading method, the gastrointestinal distress is often reduced NaHCO3 gelatin capsules help to effectively reduce or eliminate the likelihood of gastrointestinal discomfort. EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

35 Another buffer- Phosphate loading
Increasing intra and extra cellular phosphate levels: Facilitates release of oxygen from RBC to muscles Increases ATP phosphorylation Increases myocardial functional capacity  increased aerobic performance EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

36 Nutritional Ergogenic Aids
Creatine Weight loss EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

37 Creatine Most popular ergogenic aid used among NCAA college athletes (USA) Found in meat, fish and poultry Sold as a supplement in powder, tablet, capsule, liquid (dosage = 6-30g) Not illegal EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

38 How does it work? Buffer- maintains acid base balance More ATP 
Enhanced use of ATP-PC system increased peak power Remember Cr was needed to bond to the spare phosphate in the ATP-PC system Therefore Cr is critical in replenishing ATP and for all out effort lasting up to 10 seconds Facilitates recovery as ATP not fully depleted Peak power- we measured that in cycling lab EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

39  rate of CrP resynthesis  muscular power  hydration
 CrP + ADP  ATP +  Cr  Creatine (Cr)  Anaerobic capacity  rate of CrP resynthesis  muscular power  hydration  lean body mass Can turnoover ATP faster Greater hypertrophy of muscle fibres in response to resistance training Faster recovery from exercise EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

40 Effects of creatine loading versus placebo on total work accomplished during long term (80 minutes) repetitive sprint-cycling performance EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

41 How Creatine might assist in intense, short term exercise and the exercise training response
EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

42 Side effects of Creatine
Increase in muscle swelling due to the storage of more water around the muscles  may increase the chances of injury, especially between muscle and tendon connections Nausea Cramping possibly due to water retention Dizziness if excessive quantities taken Diarrhoea Kidney problems Even less is known about the long term effects of creatine supplementation- especially on cardiac muscles and the kidney (as excess must be excreted in urine) EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

43 Young athletes and creatine
148 male college recreational resistance trainers (USA) (Williams et al., 2004) 47.3 % reported creatine use and 74.3 % of the creatine users were also using protein in an effort to increase muscle bulk LaBotz, & Smith, 1999 NCAA athletes 68% of athletes had heard of creatine and 28% reported using it. 48% of men had used creatine, and 4% of women. all men's teams had at least 30% use 1/3 had first used it in high school EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

44 La Botz & Smith 1999 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

45 Sources of information LaBotz & Smith, 1999
Friends Team mates Trainers Coach Over 80% of athletes using creatine said that someone had specifically recommended it to them EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

46 Supplements claiming to assist weight loss
EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

47 Green Tea Oprah Winfrey Show
“Oprah: Now I've read in your book that you said if I just replaced coffee with green tea instead, that I could lose 10 pounds in six weeks. Dr. Perricone: Absolutely. Oprah: Now really. How could that -- what is the big deal about this? Dr Perricone: Coffee has organic acids that raise your blood sugar, raise insulin. Insulin puts a lock on body fat. When you switch over to green tea, you get your caffeine, you're all set, but you will drop your insulin levels and body fat will fall very rapidly. So 10 pounds in six weeks, I will guarantee it. Oprah: I'm gonna do that. OK. That is so good! Whoo! That is great.” EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

48 328 kj = 80 calories = 4/5 of a tim tam
Duloo et al Efficacy of a green tea extract rich in catechin polyphenols and caffeine in increasing 24-h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans Argued that increases in BMR by increase in thermoegenesis leads to weight loss Thermogenesis contributes 8–10% of daily EE in a typical sedentary man (760–950 kJ in our subjects) 4% increase in 24-h EE (328 kJ) due to the green tea extract would extrapolate to a 35–43% increase in the thermogenesis compartment of daily EE. 328 kj = 80 calories = 4/5 of a tim tam EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

49 Saper et al. 2004 50 individual dietary supplements and more than 125 commercial combination products are available for weight loss. Currently, no weight-loss supplements meet criteria for recommended use. EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

50 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

51 Performance Enhancing Genetics
Gene doping Manipulate DNA to improve speed, power or performance In Vivo- viruses modified to deliver artificial gene to target tissue/organ Ex Vivo- gene transfer to cells occurs outside the body and is then implanted into the recipient EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

52 change slow to fast twitch ratio
In vivo change slow to fast twitch ratio Myostatin increased muscle growth- remember the cow? EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

53 Summary Good to be aware of all of these to dispel myths/ talk kids out of using stuff Give correct information Be careful with medications Investigate fully EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

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