EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Lab submission Labs due week 13 Lab groups 1, 2, –Hand in after Monday’s lecture (11-12) to my office (ed. 3.11) pick up before 4 pm Monday Lab groups 3, 4, 5 –Hand in to my office wednesday 9am-10 am Pick up before 4 pm Wednesday
EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Exam Monday 3 rd November Morning 9am Check exam timetable Must be done on this day 40 M/C- ½ mark each 8 medium answer, 10 marks each
EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Ergogenic aids Substances and procedures believed to improve –Physical work capacity –Physiologic function –Athletic performance
EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Ergogenic aids 1- stimulate CNS 2- increase storage or availability of a limited substrate 3-Supplemental fuel source 4- reducing or neutralising performance inhibiting metabolic by-products 5- facilitating recovery from strenuous exercise
EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Pharmacologic Aids to Performance Caffeine Amphetamines Alcohol
EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Caffeine Enhances endurance performance by –Increased alertness –Increasing time to fatigue –Reducing perception of effort –Mobilizes FFA spares glycogen –Stimulating secretion of epinephrine –Decreased reaction time May improve sprint & power performances
EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Caffeine- Side effects May impair endurance performance by –Stimulating diuresis leading to dehydration –Nervousness –Restlessness –Insomnia –Headache –Gastrointestinal problems –Tremours
Amphetamines Speed, ephedrine, pseudoephedrine Stimulants to the CNS, but far more potent than caffeine. Mimic sympathetic hormones epinepherine and norepinepherine -Increase BP. HR, Cardiac output -Breathing rate, metabolism, blood glucose
EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Alcohol Provides 7 kCal per gram Ergogenic effects –May reduce tension and anxiety –Provides no known ergogenic effects on strength, speed, power, or endurance performances Ergolytic effects –Inhibits metabolism –Suppresses ADH secretion, leading to diuresis and dehydration –Impairs balance, memory, visual perception, speech, reaction time and motor coordination
EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Androgenic-Anabolic Steroids Synthetic derivatives of testosterone Designed to maximize anabolic effects –Enhance protein synthesis –Inhibit protein degradation Increase skeletal muscle hypertrophy and strength
EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Examples of Anabolic Steroids Oral, patches, injectable Anavar Anadrol Dianabol Equipoise Testosterone Winstrol “the clear”- Marion Jones
EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Side effects (Larance & Degenhardt, 2007) 97% of users experienced a minor side effect, such as increased appetite 10% experienced severe ones such as liver damage 87% had some change in their mood and behaviour And 27% experienced mental health concerns 95% exhibited at least one sign of dependance
EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Reasons for use Fuller and LaFountain (1987) - athletes rationalise their use by trying to justify that using steroids caused no harm either to themselves or to others. Also, individuals perceived their competitors were taking anabolic drugs, so they needed to use to compete at the same level.
EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Usage- university athletes Australia (NSW) = 0.3% of adults (>12 yrs) –12-17 yr olds 3.6%males and 2.2% female athletes (Larance & Degenhardt, 2007) use ranges within each sport from –0% to 5% in males –0% to 1.5% in females, with an –overall mean prevalence of 1.1% (Green et al., 2001) These findings are believed to be underestimates due to fears of legal or personal consequences of using prohibited ergonomic aids
Human Growth Hormone A peptide hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland Facilitates tissue-building processes and normal growth and development –Enhanced muscle and bone growth Enhances lipolysis (releases FFA’s) and elevates blood glucose levels Healing after musculoskeletal injuries
EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Growth Hormone Combined with resistance training, GH may facilitate skeletal muscle hypertrophy and strength gains –Or just fluid retention Also needs to be combined with testosterone May be associated with age
EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Side effects Chronic elevations in GH are associated with acromegaly, hypertrophy of soft tissue organs, diabetes, elevated blood pressure, and atherosclerotic diseases
EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Red blood cell reinfusion (blood doping) Practice of illicitly boosting the number of RBC in order to enhance athletic performance. –>Increased RBC can carry more O2, which can improve an athlete’s aerobic capacity and endurance. Two types –homologous transfusion –autologous transfusion
EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance EPO Peptide hormone that occurs naturally in the body. EPO is released from the kidneys to stimulate increased red blood cell production in the bone marrow (erythropoiesis). –improve endurance performance (Increased Vo2 max) –improved recovery from anaerobic exercise.
EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Side effects Increase in blood viscosity heart has to work harder to pump the thicker blood and the blood is more prone to clot. Increased risk of heart attack, stroke and blood clots in the lung. The risk is exacerbated by dehydration which often occurs during endurance exercise. Differing individual responses to EPO
EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance How detected? Measure Hematocrit - the fraction of blood cells by volume that are RBCs. Normal HCT is 41-50% in adult men and 36-44% in adult women New way- compare the levels of mature and immature RBCs in an athlete's circulation. –If a high number of mature RBCs is not accompanied by a high number of immature RBCs it suggests that the mature RBCs were artificially introduced by transfusion.
EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Buffering solutions In exercise 30-120 seconds, anaerobic energy transfer is used Significantly –Increases lactate production –decreases intracellular pH ( towards acidic) These decreases in pH –inhibit energy transfer –reduce ability of muscle fibres to contract Buffering solutions guard against acidosis (decrease in pH)
EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Sodium bicarbonate Benefits athletes in events at near maximum intensity for 1-7 minutes Acute loading (one time dose) – dosage = 300 mg per kg bodyweight –increase total work (joules) from 9 - 27% –increase peak power output (watts) by 5.3 - 8.7% Chronic loading - 500 mg/kg body mass in 4 doses every 3-4 hours for 5-6 days.
EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Side effects Nausea, bloating, vomiting, and diarrhea Most common when loading includes the NaHCO3 water mixture. If athletes drink large quantities of water in acute loading method, the gastrointestinal distress is often reduced NaHCO3 gelatin capsules help to effectively reduce or eliminate the likelihood of gastrointestinal discomfort.
EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Another buffer- Phosphate loading Increasing intra and extra cellular phosphate levels: –Facilitates release of oxygen from RBC to muscles –Increases ATP phosphorylation –Increases myocardial functional capacity increased aerobic performance
EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Nutritional Ergogenic Aids Creatine Weight loss
EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Creatine Most popular ergogenic aid used among NCAA college athletes (USA) Found in meat, fish and poultry Sold as a supplement in powder, tablet, capsule, liquid (dosage = 6-30g) Not illegal
EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance How does it work? Buffer- maintains acid base balance More ATP Enhanced use of ATP-PC system increased peak power –Remember Cr was needed to bond to the spare phosphate in the ATP-PC system –Therefore Cr is critical in replenishing ATP and for all out effort lasting up to 10 seconds Facilitates recovery as ATP not fully depleted
EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Creatine (Cr) CrP + ADP ATP + Cr Anaerobic capacity rate of CrP resynthesis muscular power hydration lean body mass
Side effects of Creatine Increase in muscle swelling due to the storage of more water around the muscles may increase the chances of injury, especially between muscle and tendon connections Nausea Cramping possibly due to water retention Dizziness if excessive quantities taken Diarrhoea Kidney problems
EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Young athletes and creatine 148 male college recreational resistance trainers (USA) (Williams et al., 2004) –47.3 % reported creatine use and –74.3 % of the creatine users were also using protein in an effort to increase muscle bulk LaBotz, & Smith, 1999 NCAA athletes –68% of athletes had heard of creatine and 28% reported using it. –48% of men had used creatine, and 4% of women. –all men's teams had at least 30% use –1/3 had first used it in high school
Sources of information LaBotz & Smith, 1999 Friends Team mates Trainers Coach Over 80% of athletes using creatine said that someone had specifically recommended it to them
EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Supplements claiming to assist weight loss
EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Green Tea Oprah Winfrey Show “Oprah: Now I've read in your book that you said if I just replaced coffee with green tea instead, that I could lose 10 pounds in six weeks. Dr. Perricone: Absolutely. Oprah: Now really. How could that -- what is the big deal about this? Dr Perricone: Coffee has organic acids that raise your blood sugar, raise insulin. Insulin puts a lock on body fat. When you switch over to green tea, you get your caffeine, you're all set, but you will drop your insulin levels and body fat will fall very rapidly. So 10 pounds in six weeks, I will guarantee it. Oprah: I'm gonna do that. OK. That is so good! Whoo! That is great.”
EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Duloo et al 1999- Efficacy of a green tea extract rich in catechin polyphenols and caffeine in increasing 24-h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans Argued that increases in BMR by increase in thermoegenesis leads to weight loss Thermogenesis contributes 8–10% of daily EE in a typical sedentary man (760–950 kJ in our subjects) 4% increase in 24-h EE (328 kJ) due to the green tea extract would extrapolate to a 35–43% increase in the thermogenesis compartment of daily EE. 328 kj = 80 calories = 4/5 of a tim tam
EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Saper et al. 2004 50 individual dietary supplements and more than 125 commercial combination products are available for weight loss. Currently, no weight-loss supplements meet criteria for recommended use.
Performance Enhancing Genetics Gene doping Manipulate DNA to improve speed, power or performance –In Vivo- viruses modified to deliver artificial gene to target tissue/organ –Ex Vivo- gene transfer to cells occurs outside the body and is then implanted into the recipient