3Lifelong Nutritional Needs Your age, gender, lifestyle, and health needs can affect your body’s food needs.Everyone has different nutritional needs.
4Lifelong Nutritional Needs Factors that Affect Your Nutritional NeedsAs you get older, your calorie needs will change based on your activity level.AgeFemales tend to need fewer calories but more of some nutrients than males.GenderThe more active you are, the more calories your body needs.Activity Level
5Vegetarian DietsA healthful vegetarian diet contains a variety of foods, including plenty of vegetables, fruits, and whole-grain foods.VegetarianA person who eats mostly or only plant-based foods
6Vegetarian Diets Vegans eat only plant-based foods. Types of VegetariansVegans eat only plant-based foods.Lacto-ovo vegetarians also include dairy foods and eggs in their diet.Lacto vegetarians include dairy foods in their diet.Ovo vegetarians include eggs in their diet.
7Personal preference for vegetarian foods Vegetarian DietsPeople may choose a meatless diet for many reasons.Religious, cultural, or economic reasonsPersonal preference for vegetarian foodsHealth Reasons
8Vegetarian DietsPlant-based foods tend to be lower in saturated fat and cholesterol, and higher in fiber, than most animal-based foods.A well-planned meatless diet may help reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer.
9Vegetarian DietsPlant-based foods tend to be lower in certain nutrients, such as protein, iron, calcium, zinc, and some B vitamins.One nutrient, vitamin B12, is found only in animal-based foods.
10Vegetarian DietsSome vegetarians may need to take dietary supplements to obtain all the nutrients.Dietary supplementsProducts that supply one or more nutrients as a supplement to, not a substitute for, healthful foods
11Health Conditions Diabetics Food Allergies Lactose Intolerance Control carbohydrate intake to control blood sugar.Food AllergiesAvoid the foods and food ingredients they are allergic to.Lactose IntoleranceConsume less lactose.Gluten IntoleranceAvoid glutens.Celiac DiseaseAvoid grains and grain-based products.High Blood PressureReduce salt intake.High CholesterolReduce intake of saturated fats and trans fats.
12Nutrition for Athletes Athletes need:a balanced diet that supplies enough nutrients to support health.more calories to provide additional fuel.more calories from nutrient-dense foods and foods higher in carbohydrates.more protein and carbohydrates than inactive people.
13Making WeightIf your sport requires you to “make weight” to compete with others in the same weight class, you must compete at a weight that’s right for you.Your ideal weight will put your BMI in a healthy range and allow you to eat enough to meet your daily nutrient needs.
14HydrationTeen girls should drink 9 cups of non-caffeinated fluids each day.Teen boys should drink 13 cups of non-caffeinated fluids each day.Student athletes may need more fluids.
15HydrationTo prevent dehydration and heatstroke, drink water before and after you exercise, and every 15 minutes or so during a workout.
16HydrationDehydration can lead to fatigue, dizziness or light-headedness, cramping, and an imbalance of electrolytes—minerals that help maintain the body’s fluid balance.The minerals sodium, chloride, and potassium are all electrolytes.
17Avoiding Performance Enhancers Some athletes try to gain an extra edge by using illegal performance enhancers.Performance enhancersSubstances that boost athletic ability
18Avoiding Performance Enhancers These dangerous drugs have the same effect as male hormones (known as androgens) and are used to boost muscle growth.Anabolic SteroidsAndro is a weaker form of the androgens that the body produces naturally. It is used to build muscle.AndrostenedioneThis compound helps release energy and can cause cramps, nausea, and heart, liver, and kidney damage.CreatineEnergy drinks contain high amounts of caffeine and provide energy by increasing your heart rate. These beverages can lead to dehydration.Energy Drinks
19Eating Before a Competition Eat about three to four hours before a competition and drink plenty of water before, during, and after the competition.Choose meals that are high in carbohydrates and low in fat and protein.
20Using SupplementsDietary supplements can help people meet their nutrient needs if they cannot do it with food alone.Dietary supplements provide various combinations of vitamins, minerals, protein, and fiber.
21Using SupplementsDietary supplements are no substitute for eating a variety of healthful foods.
22Using SupplementsVegetarians may use supplements to provide nutrients they do not get from animal-based foods.Pregnant or nursing women may use supplements to get the extra nutrients their bodies need.People recovering from illness or taking certain medications may need to take supplements.
23Concerns About Dietary Supplements Most people who follow a nutritious, well-balanced eating plan will not need a multivitamin.Multivitamin and mineral supplements are generally safe to use, as long as you use them correctly.
24Concerns About Dietary Supplements Do not take supplements that provide more than 100 percent of the Daily Values for any nutrient.
25Concerns About Dietary Supplements Taking megadoses of any supplement can be dangerous, especially fat-soluble vitamins, which can build up in body fat and become toxic.MegadosesVery large amounts
26Concerns About Dietary Supplements The National Institutes of Health (NIH) cautions that herbal supplements are just like drugs.Herbal supplementsDietary supplements containing plant extracts
27Concerns About Dietary Supplements Herbal supplements can be dangerous.Some herbal supplements have been known to cause heart attack, stroke, or serious liver damage.
28After You Read Reviewing Facts and Vocabulary What are dietary supplements?Dietary supplements are products that supply one or more nutrients as a supplement to, not a substitute for, healthful foods.
29After You Read Reviewing Facts and Vocabulary List three factors that can affect your body’s nutrient needs.Age, gender, activity level
30After You Read Reviewing Facts and Vocabulary Why should teen athletes avoid performance enhancers?Teen athletes should avoid performance enhancers because they pose health risks and many are illegal and/or banned in competitive sports.