Lifelong Nutritional Needs Your age, gender, lifestyle, and health needs can affect your body’s food needs. Everyone has different nutritional needs.
Lifelong Nutritional Needs Factors that Affect Your Nutritional Needs Age Gender Activity Level As you get older, your calorie needs will change based on your activity level. Females tend to need fewer calories but more of some nutrients than males. The more active you are, the more calories your body needs.
Vegetarian Diets A healthful vegetarian diet contains a variety of foods, including plenty of vegetables, fruits, and whole-grain foods. Vegetarian A person who eats mostly or only plant-based foods
Vegetarian Diets Types of Vegetarians Vegans eat only plant-based foods. Lacto-ovo vegetarians also include dairy foods and eggs in their diet. Lacto vegetarians include dairy foods in their diet. Ovo vegetarians include eggs in their diet.
Vegetarian Diets People may choose a meatless diet for many reasons. Personal preference for vegetarian foods Religious, cultural, or economic reasons Health Reasons
Vegetarian Diets Plant-based foods tend to be lower in saturated fat and cholesterol, and higher in fiber, than most animal-based foods. A well-planned meatless diet may help reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer.
Vegetarian Diets Plant-based foods tend to be lower in certain nutrients, such as protein, iron, calcium, zinc, and some B vitamins. One nutrient, vitamin B12, is found only in animal-based foods.
Vegetarian Diets Some vegetarians may need to take dietary supplements to obtain all the nutrients. Dietary supplements Products that supply one or more nutrients as a supplement to, not a substitute for, healthful foods
Health Conditions Diabetics Food Allergies Lactose Intolerance Gluten Intolerance Celiac Disease High Blood Pressure High Cholesterol Control carbohydrate intake to control blood sugar. Avoid the foods and food ingredients they are allergic to. Consume less lactose. Avoid glutens. Avoid grains and grain-based products. Reduce salt intake. Reduce intake of saturated fats and trans fats.
Nutrition for Athletes a balanced diet that supplies enough nutrients to support health. more calories to provide additional fuel. more protein and carbohydrates than inactive people. more calories from nutrient-dense foods and foods higher in carbohydrates. Athletes need:
Making Weight If your sport requires you to “make weight” to compete with others in the same weight class, you must compete at a weight that’s right for you. Your ideal weight will put your BMI in a healthy range and allow you to eat enough to meet your daily nutrient needs.
Hydration Teen girls should drink 9 cups of non-caffeinated fluids each day. Teen boys should drink 13 cups of non-caffeinated fluids each day. Student athletes may need more fluids.
Hydration To prevent dehydration and heatstroke, drink water before and after you exercise, and every 15 minutes or so during a workout.
Hydration Dehydration can lead to fatigue, dizziness or light-headedness, cramping, and an imbalance of electrolytes—minerals that help maintain the body’s fluid balance. The minerals sodium, chloride, and potassium are all electrolytes.
Avoiding Performance Enhancers Some athletes try to gain an extra edge by using illegal performance enhancers. Performance enhancers Substances that boost athletic ability
Avoiding Performance Enhancers Anabolic Steroids Androstenedione Creatine Energy Drinks These dangerous drugs have the same effect as male hormones (known as androgens) and are used to boost muscle growth. Andro is a weaker form of the androgens that the body produces naturally. It is used to build muscle. This compound helps release energy and can cause cramps, nausea, and heart, liver, and kidney damage. Energy drinks contain high amounts of caffeine and provide energy by increasing your heart rate. These beverages can lead to dehydration.
Eating Before a Competition Eat about three to four hours before a competition and drink plenty of water before, during, and after the competition. Choose meals that are high in carbohydrates and low in fat and protein.
Using Supplements Dietary supplements can help people meet their nutrient needs if they cannot do it with food alone. Dietary supplements provide various combinations of vitamins, minerals, protein, and fiber.
Using Supplements Dietary supplements are no substitute for eating a variety of healthful foods.
Using Supplements People recovering from illness or taking certain medications may need to take supplements. Pregnant or nursing women may use supplements to get the extra nutrients their bodies need. Vegetarians may use supplements to provide nutrients they do not get from animal-based foods.
Concerns About Dietary Supplements Most people who follow a nutritious, well-balanced eating plan will not need a multivitamin. Multivitamin and mineral supplements are generally safe to use, as long as you use them correctly.
Concerns About Dietary Supplements Do not take supplements that provide more than 100 percent of the Daily Values for any nutrient.
Concerns About Dietary Supplements Taking megadoses of any supplement can be dangerous, especially fat-soluble vitamins, which can build up in body fat and become toxic. Megadoses Very large amounts
Concerns About Dietary Supplements The National Institutes of Health (NIH) cautions that herbal supplements are just like drugs. Herbal supplements Dietary supplements containing plant extracts
Concerns About Dietary Supplements Herbal supplements can be dangerous. Some herbal supplements have been known to cause heart attack, stroke, or serious liver damage.
After You Read Reviewing Facts and Vocabulary Dietary supplements are products that supply one or more nutrients as a supplement to, not a substitute for, healthful foods. 1.What are dietary supplements?
After You Read Reviewing Facts and Vocabulary 2.List three factors that can affect your body’s nutrient needs. Age, gender, activity level
After You Read Reviewing Facts and Vocabulary 3.Why should teen athletes avoid performance enhancers? Teen athletes should avoid performance enhancers because they pose health risks and many are illegal and/or banned in competitive sports.