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Ergogenic Aids.

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Presentation on theme: "Ergogenic Aids."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ergogenic Aids

2 Ergogenic Aids Any substance, man made or natural, that will artificially enhance performance by increasing strength, endurance, etc Who uses ergogenic aids? Placebo effects? Ethical issues?

3 Anabolic Steroids Schedule III of Controlled Substances Act
Usage began in the 1940’s Synthetic substance developed in 1953 IOC banned steroids in late 1960’s IOC instituted testing at 1976 Summer Olympics 21 FB players banned from bowl games in 1987 Recent increase in usage

4 Effects of Anabolic Steroids
Mimics Testosterone Androgenic Effects male sex characteristics want to limit these effects Anabolic Effects increase protein & creatine phosphate synthesis increase muscle mass increase aggressiveness **increase oxygen carrying capacity - not proven

5 Anabolic Steroids - Sources
Prescription anemia, replacement therapy, increase appetite, abnormal protein synthesis NORMAL dose = 5-10 mg/day Veterinarian Black Market

6 Anabolic Steroids - Administration
Oral – Dianabol, Android, Anadrol, Oxandrin EXCESSIVE dose = >25-50 mg/day (200 mg/day) Injection – Deca-Durabolin, DEPO-Testosterone EXCESSIVE dose = > mg/week Programs stacking - use of oral & injectable pyramiding then usage cycling - on/off (6-12 wks)

7 Anabolic Steroids - Adverse Effects
Psychological “roid rage” mood swings, depression, euphoria mania, recklessness Physical liver toxicity muscle cramps acne balding, increase hair on body water retention heart abnormalities premature closure of epiphyseal growth plates alters fat metabolism women - masculine

8 Anabolic Steroids – More Adverse Effects
increase blood pressure increase cholesterol increase risk of HA increase risk of liver cancer body stops producing testosterone tendon injuries illness due to contaminated needles increase in number of injuries?

9 Drug Testing Urine test Test 1 hr. after announcing test
Masking agents – Benemid, Corticosteroids, DHEA, other substances T/E Ratio also measure concentration of testosterone and specific gravity

10 DHEA (Dehydroepiandrosterone)
Natural steroid hormone produced in the adrenal glands converted to testosterone – anabolic effects Medicinal uses – heart disease, obesity, diabetes, amount in body decreases w/age Masking agent – normalizes T/E ratio Available as a supplement

11 Androstenedione Natural substance – produced in adrenal glands
Nutritional supplement Anabolic effects, increase energy, enhance recovery

12 Human Growth Hormone (Somatotropin)
Hormone secreted from pituitary gland Effects stimulate protein synthesis stimulate growth increase muscle mass increase strength of muscles, tendons, etc

13 Human Growth Hormone Adverse effects Alternative to steroids
acromegaly - large hands & feet abnormal shaped head increase size of heart, liver, kidneys increase cholesterol Alternative to steroids cheaper harder to detect

14 Beta Blockers (Beta1 antagonists)
Decrease activity in sympathetic N.S. Medical uses - hypertension, angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmias Reasons for abuse by athletes cardiac palpitations, decrease HR muscle tremors hyperventilation anxiety, nervousness

15 Blood Doping Purpose - increase number of RBC to O2 carrying capacity
Technique remove blood 5-6 wks. before event freeze RBC infuse RBC several days before event

16 Blood Doping Adverse effects Risks **Difficult to detect
difficult to train increase viscosity of blood Risks risk of blood clots, HA or stroke infection hepatitis **Difficult to detect Eryrthropoietin(EPO) – human hormone

17 Nutritional Supplements
Pharmaceutical vs. Nutraceutical vitamin, mineral, herb, amino acid, metabolite, extract 1994 Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) – allowed manufacturers to distribute products w/o a prescription and outside FDA jurisdiction. can only make general health statements

18 Creatine Effects Adverse effects
increase rate of creatine resynthesis during ex. recycles ATP prolongs onset of fatigue - decrease lactic acid accumulation increase protein synthesis, increase muscle mass Adverse effects cramping, muscle strains kidney problems; long term effects unknown weight gain

19 Chromium Effects regulates carbohydrate supply
assists insulin - increase transport of glucose increase energy increase protein synthesis, increase muscle mass decrease body fat???? Is a trace element Be aware of liver toxicity Is not banned by IOC or NCAA

20 Bicarbonate Ingestion
Counteracts buildup of lactic acid in anaerobic events Dosage needed >300 mg/kg (>35 tablets) Adverse effects – diarrhea, electrolyte imbalance Is not banned

21 Nutritional Supplements
Pyruvate - decrease body fat ????? Ephedrine (Ma Huang) – increase weight loss; many side effects Guarana Green Tea Leaf Extract Willow Bark L-Carnitine – burn fat faster

22 Nutritional Supplements
Ginseng –increase power; affects energy systems; often combined w/ ephedrine L-Glutamine – increase function of immune system HMB – increase muscle mass; decrease fat

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