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THE ISLAMIC WORLD GARDINER 13-2 PP. 350-357. LUXURY ARTS  Furnishings of Islamic mosques and palaces -> sumptuous materials and rich decorative patterns.

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Presentation on theme: "THE ISLAMIC WORLD GARDINER 13-2 PP. 350-357. LUXURY ARTS  Furnishings of Islamic mosques and palaces -> sumptuous materials and rich decorative patterns."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE ISLAMIC WORLD GARDINER 13-2 PP

2 LUXURY ARTS  Furnishings of Islamic mosques and palaces -> sumptuous materials and rich decorative patterns  Muslim artisans -> worked w/metal, wood, glass, and ivory  Ornate ceramics  Bronze and brass objects  Silk and wool textiles -> featured both abstract and pictorial motifs  Wood was rare -> little movable furnishings -> instead, rugs and cushions

3 SILK  Confronting lions and palm tree, fragment of a textile said to be from Zandana, near Bukhara, Uzbekistan, eighth century. Silk compound twill, 2’ 11” x 2’ 9 1/2”.  Silks are one of the glories of Islamic art -> fragile -> few survive  The Silk Road = route from Asia to the Middle East and Europe on which goods were shipped  This rare silk fragment is an early example of Islamic silk textiles -> features animal motifs that were common in secular contexts but shunned for mosques

4 METALWORK  SULAYMAN, Ewer in the form of a bird, 796. Brass with silver and copper inlay, 1’ 3” high.  Cast brass -> signed and dated by its maker -> utilitarian bird ewer resembles a freestanding statue  Engraved decoration on the body combine incised lines suggesting feathers and abstract motifs and Arabic calligraphy

5 CALLIGRAPHY  Koran page with beginning of surah 18, al- Kahf (The Cave), ninth or early tenth century. Ink and gold on vellum, 7 1/4” x 10 1/4”.  Calligraphy is the most prized art form -> appears on most Islamic works of art  Faithful wanted to reproduce the Koran’s sacred words in as beautiful a script as humanly possible  The practice of calligraphy was a holy task and required long and arduous training  This Koran page shows the stately rectilinear Kufic script -> five text lines and a palm tree finial -> characteristically does not include depictions of animals or humans

6 LATER ISLAMIC ART AND ARCHITECTURE  New regional centers of Islamic art and architecture appear in the 2 nd millennium  Key centers of later Islamic art and architecture are the Middle East, Turkey, and Spain ISLAMIC SPAIN  In the early 11 th century the Umayyad caliphs’ power in Spain falls apart  Berber soldiers rule southern Spain for several generations  The Muslim capital of Cordoba fell to the Christians in 1236  From 1236 until the final defeat of the Muslims in Spain in 1492 an Arab dynasty called the Nasrids rules what’s left from the their capital at Granada

7 THE ALHAMBRA  In Granada the Nasrids construct a huge palace-fortress called the Alhambra = “the Red” in Arabic because of the rose colored stone used for its walls and 23 towers  Only two of the palaces are preserved in good shape

8 Alhambra Palace -> The Court of the Lions, a unique remnant of Islamic animal statues.

9 The Alhambra  Muqarnas dome, Hall of the Two Sisters, Alhambra palace, Granada, Spain, 1354–  Dome sits on octagonal drum supported by squinches -> pierced by 8 pairs of windows  Ceiling covered with 5,000 muqarnas -> intended to catch and reflect sunlight -> form beautiful abstract patterns -> symbolizes the dome of Heaven  MUQARNA = a honeycomb-like decoration often applied in Islamic buildings to domes, niches, capitals, or vaults -> the surface resembles intricate stalactites

10 The Alhambra  Under the Nasrids, the Alhambra was transformed into a palatine city w/irrigation system composed of acequias for lush and beautiful gardens of the Generalife located outside the fortress.  Previously, the old Alhambra structure had been dependent upon rainwater collected from a cistern and from what could be brought up from the Albaicín.  The creation of the “Sultan’s Canal” solidified the identity of the Alhambra as a sumptuous palace-city rather than a defensive and ascetic structure.

11  Water does not play the same essential role in traditional European architecture as it does in Islamic architecture.  The Quran states that ‘Every living thing is made of water’, and the prominence of this thought is visible in Islam’s use of water.  The role played by water in Islamic architecture is as symbolic as it is practical.  Water is not only used in a purely utilitarian manner: after all, it is the source of life and thus carries an important symbol - not only for Islam, but also for many cultures that associate it with life, purification and sustainability.

12 The Alhambra  Of the outlying buildings in connection with the Alhambra, the foremost in interest is the Palacio de Generalife or Gineralife (the Muslim Jennat al Arif, or "Garden of the Architect").  This villa probably dates from the end of the 13th century, but has been several times restored.  Its gardens, however, with their clipped hedges, grottos, fountains, and cypress avenues, are said to retain their original Moorish character.

13  detail of an arabesque from the Alhambra Islamic art features 3 types of patterns: 1.Arabesques 2.Calligraphy 3.tessellation  Most design elements in Islamic world are based on plant motifs -> sometimes intermingled w/abstract geometric shapes and, in secular settings, with animal figures  Natural forms are so stylized that they are lost in the purely decorative tracery of the tendrils, leaves, and stalks  These arabesques, as they are often called because they are so characteristic of Islamic (“Arab”) art, form a pattern that covers an entire surface, whether that of a small utensil or the wall of a building.  Patterns have no function but to decorate.

14 MAUSOLEUM OF SULTAN HASAN  Madrasa-mosque-mausoleum complex of Sultan Hasan (view from the south with the mausoleum in the foreground), Cairo, Egypt, begun  In mid-13 th century Genghiz Khan and the Mongols conquer much of the Eastern Islamic world  Center of Islamic power moved from Baghdad to Egypt  Egypt was ruled by the Mamluks -> their capital was Cairo -> largest Muslim city in the late Middle Ages  This MADRASA = “place of study” was built by Sultan Hasan -> contains 4 madrasas, a mosque, his tomb, and various other buildings

15 OTTOMAN EMPIRE  Between 9 th -11 th centuries the Turkic people convert to Islam  Ottoman dynasty was founded by Osman I -> under his successors the Ottomans expand for 2 ½ centuries into Asia, Europe, and N. Africa  Ottoman emperors were lavish patrons of architecture  Dome covered square is the nucleus of all Ottoman architecture  Ottomans conquer Constantinople in > Byzantine church of Hagia Sophia is converted into a mosque w/minarets  Central plan mosque is the basic form of Ottoman building

16 SINAN THE GREAT AND MOSQUE OF SELIM II  SINAN, Mosque of Selim II, Edirne, Turkey, 1568–1575  Sinan = the most famous Ottoman architect  Mosque w/massive dome and four pencil thin minarets -> dome is higher than Hagia Sophia  Regarded as the climax of Ottoman architecture, Sinan’s forms are clear and legible, like mathematical equations. Height, width, and masses are related to one another in a simple but effective ratio of 1:2

17 SINAN THE GREAT  Interior of Mosque of Selim II designed by Sinan the Great  Main hall is an octagon formed by 8 massive dome supports -> four half dome-covered corners of the square


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