A MUSLIM CALIPHATE Chapter 10, Lesson 3. Time Period750-1200 AD Read the Big Picture p.272
THE BIG PICTURE Centuries before the founding of Baghdad, Persian rulers controlled lands north of the Arabian peninsula from Egypt to India. Centuries before the founding of Baghdad, Persian rulers controlled lands north of the Arabian peninsula from Egypt to India. The Persian empire was in decline in the A.D. 600’s as Islam developed in Mecca. The Persian empire was in decline in the A.D. 600’s as Islam developed in Mecca. This allowed Muhammad to gain control of the Arabian peninsula. By 700, Muslim rulers controlled the Mediterranean region. This allowed Muhammad to gain control of the Arabian peninsula. By 700, Muslim rulers controlled the Mediterranean region. In 762 the decision to build a capital city was made which would become the center of Muslim achievements in science, art, and architecture. In 762 the decision to build a capital city was made which would become the center of Muslim achievements in science, art, and architecture.
Quietly conference with your team, compare your notes, and create the main idea The Big Picture. You have two minutes and must try to keep the main idea to a sentence. Main Idea: As the Persian Empire declines, Muslims gain control of the Arabian Peninsula.
MAP WORK 1. Which River Flowed near Baghdad? 2. Which city is closest to the Persian Gulf- Constantinople, Baghdad, or Mecca? 3. About how far is Baghdad from Mecca? Click for answers: 1.Tigris River, Euprates River 2.Baghdad 3.About 950 miles
HOTWORDS Caliphs (KAY lihfs) – A Muslim leader who had both political and religious authority Mosque (MAHSK) – A Muslim place of worship. Read the Muslim Rule & Baghdad, p.273
MUSLIM RULE Islam was just over 100 years old Caliphs had been chosen to govern the land In many areas people welcomed Islam and became Muslims
Baghdad A statue of the caliph Al-Monsour, founder of the city of Baghdad, watches over traffic.
Baghdad From the late 700s until the 1200s Baghdad was the capital of the Muslim caliphate Baghdad had more than 1 million people making it one of the world’s largest cities. Baghdad had an international flavor, providing goods to purchase from all over the known world.
Downtown Baghdad From the center of Baghdad, four main roads went to all parts of the caliphate (empire). Traders used these roads to bring riches from all over the caliphate and beyond. Here are some picture of modern day Baghdad
Quietly conference with your team, compare your notes, and create the main idea MUSLIM RULE & Baghdad. You have two minutes and must try to keep the main idea to a sentence. Main Idea: In 760 Islam was 100 years old. In that time Caliphs ruled a large area around Arabia called the Muslim Caliphate, the capital of which was the very prosperous city of Baghdad.
ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE CALIPHATE Muslims made major advances in medicine, math and science. Read the 274-275, Achievements of the Caliphate, Advances in Medicine & Math and Science
“He who travels in search of knowledge travels along Allah’s path of Paradise.”
Records show that Arabic doctors performed many different surgical operations including the removal of varicose veins, kidney stones and the replacement of dislocated limbs. They used sponges soaked in narcotic drugs which were placed over the patient's nose as early anesthetics. The Arab Physician and scholar Ibn Sina Advances in Medicine
Spreading the word One of the most important medical books of its time was written by the physician Ali al-Husayn Abd Allah Ibn Sina (also known as Avicenna). His massive manuscript, called the Laws of Medicine, was completed around 1030 AD and translated into Latin in the 12th Century. This encyclopaedia of medicine contained five books detailing the formulation of medicines, diagnosis of disorders, general medicine and detailed therapies. It continued to be a great influence in the development of medicine in medieval Europe for hundreds of years.
Math and Science Muslims created a simplified number system to that of the Romans which is commonly used in the world today. Muslim mathematicians built on the work of Hindu scholars greatly improving the field of al-jabr “algebra” Muslims also made great advancements in the field of astronomy, improving the Greek’s astrolabe instrument
Astrolabe – An instrument invented by Muslims that is used to determine direction by figuring out the position of the stars Algebra – A type of mathematics to which Muslims made great contributions HOTWORDS
Places of Worship Read Places of Worship, p.275
A 14th-century mosque still dominates Yazd’s oldest quarter
Places of Worship Muslims followed specific guidelines when building Muslim mosques A builder must do the following when building a mosque: make sure that it faces Mecca, include a courtyard and prayer towers, and provide a water source so that worshippers can cleanse themselves. The oldest Muslim monument still standing is the Dome of the Rock, built in 691.
Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem Area view of the Dome of the Rock terrace from southwest with the Wailing Wall on the bottom right corner.
Literature and Music Read Literature and Music, p. 275
Arab music covers a vast geographical area ranging from the Atlas Mountains and parts of the Sahara in Africa to the Arabian Gulf region and the banks of the Euphrates. Whether from Morocco, Egypt, or Iraq, Arabs are able to identify today with a multi-faceted musical heritage that originated in antiquity, but that gained sophistication and momentum during the height of the Islamic Empire between the eighth and the thirteenth centuries. Since the spread of Islam from the Arabian Peninsula towards the middle of the seventh century until the present century, Arab music has been shaped by five principal processes, some purely intellectual and cultural, others political. Arab music Islam
Origins of the Arabian Nights The stories of the Arabian Nights were written by many people over the course of hundreds of years. The core of original stories came out of Persia and India in the early eighth century. They were translated into Arabic and given the name Alf Layla or The Thousand Nights. This set of stories was few in number and fell far short of living up to the number in its title.
In Iraq in the ninth or tenth century, a group of Arab stories were added. This new group probably contained the tales that refer to Caliph Harun al-Rashid. Also, in the period immediately after this, several tales that had previously existed outside of the Nights were incorporated into the main body of the tales. Starting the 13th century, another group of tales was added, these of Syrian or Egyptian origin. In "modern" times, additional tales were added (by Galland, for example), and the total was brought up to the number given in the title. Caliph Harun al-RashidGallandCaliph Harun al-RashidGalland
Quietly conference with your team, compare your notes, and create the main idea. You have two minutes and must try to keep the main idea to a sentence. Main Idea: The Muslim Caliphate made major advancements in medicine, math, science, architecture, literature and music, which influence modern day life.
WHY IT MATTERS Read, p 277, Why it matters Next: A photo pilgrimage to Mecca
Mecca, also Makkah A city in western Saudi Arabia located in the Al Jijaz (Hejaz) region, near Jiddah. Mecca is the birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad (the founder of Islam), the center of pilgrimage for Muslims, and the focal point of their daily prayers. In Arabic, the city is known as Makkah al-mukkaramah (“Mecca the blessed”). Pilgrimage to the city is one of the Five Pillars of Islam and is required of all able adult Muslims at least once in their lifetimes. The pilgrimage (hajj in Arabic) is the defining factor in the growth and life of the city. The influx of close to 2 million pilgrims each year during the last month of the Islamic calendar is a grand human spectacle as well as one of the largest logistical and administrative undertakings in the world.
More than two million pilgrims gather each year to perform Hajj.
One of the five pillars of Islam, hajj is required of all Muslims at least once in a lifetime if they are physically and financially able to do so without compromising family responsibilities. Each year, Muslims from all over the world embark on an epic reaffirmation of faith and quest for salvation that peaks in and around Mecca during five days of the last month of the Islamic calendar.
Muslim pilgrims on hajj gather in prayer at the Grand Mosque in Mecca. Hajj calls for a state of ritual sanctity and mental purity. Despite the physical and emotional challenges facing the pilgrims, they must not let themselves be swayed by anger or frustration.
Muslim pilgrims file into Mecca’s Grand Mosque located at the heart of the city. Home to the Kaaba, Islam's holiest shrine, the mosque is designed to accommodate nearly two million pilgrims who converge on Mecca during the hajj, the annual Islamic pilgrimage.
Radiant with faith, a sea of Muslims gathers in prayer in and around Mecca’s Grand Mosque. At the center of this huge mosque's central courtyard is the Kaaba, the ancient cube-shaped structure that is Islam’s holiest shrine.
The Pilgrimage starts with the reciting of this invocation. Here I am, Oh God, at Your command! Here I am at Your command! You are without associate! Here I am at Your command! To You are all praise, grace and dominion! You are without associate!
The First Official Day On the first official day of the pilgrimage, the millions of pilgrims that have now gathered travel from Mecca to Mina, a small village east of the city. There they spend the day and night in enormous tent cities, praying, reading the Qur’an, and resting for the next day.
The Second Official Day On the second day of the pilgrimage, the pilgrims leave Mina just after dawn to travel to the Plain of Arafat for the culminating experience of the Hajj.
The Second Official Day On the second day of the pilgrimage, the pilgrims leave Mina just after dawn to travel to the Plain of Arafat for the culminating experience of the Hajj. On what is known as the "Day of Arafat,” the pilgrims spend the entire day standing (or sitting) near the Mount of Mercy, asking Allah for forgiveness and making supplications. Muslims around the world who are not at the pilgrimage join them in spirit by fasting for the day. Day of ArafatDay of Arafat
Pilgrims clamber on to buses to retrace Mohammad's steps from Mecca to Mina
The Third Official Day On the third day, the pilgrims move before sunrise, this time back to Mina. Here they throw their stone pebbles at pillars that represent the temptations of Satan. When throwing the stones, the pilgrims recall the story of Satan’s attempt to dissuade Abraham from following God’s command to sacrifice his son. The stones represent Abraham’s After casting the pebbles, most pilgrims slaugter and animal (often a sheep or a goat) and give away the meat to the poor. This is a symbolic act that shows their willingness to part with something that is precious to them, just as the Prophet Abraham was prepared to sacrifice his son at God’s command.
The Fourth Official Day The pilgrims then return to Mecca and perform seven tawaf, turns around the Ka’aba, the house of worship built by Abraham and his son. In other rites, the pilgrims pray near a place called “The Station of Abraham,” which is reportedly where Abraham stood while constructing the Ka’aba. The pilgrims also walk seven times between two small hills near the Ka’aba (and enclosed in the Grand Mosque’s complex). This is done in remembrance of the plight of Abraham’s wife Hajar, who desperately searched in the area for water for herself and her son, before a spring welled up in the desert for her. The pilgrims also drink from this ancient spring, known as Zamzam, which still flows today.