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Muslim Innovations and Adaptations

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1 Muslim Innovations and Adaptations
History Alive Chapter 9 Muslim Innovations and Adaptations

2 9.3 City Building and Architecture
Development of new cities developed Muslim lands New architecture Jobs

3 City of Baghdad Caliph al-Mansur moved capital from Damascus to Baghdad Closer to his empire Today, Baghdad located between Tigris & Euphrates River Crossroads of trade roots connecting the empire

4 City of Baghdad Glorious Muslim cities 4 years to build new capital
100,000 architects, workers and craftspeople Called “the round city”

5 The Mosque Muslim house of worship Inside is a prayer room
Worshippers sit on carpets on the floor Imam gives the sermon from a raised pulpit called the minibar Niche in the wall to show direction of prayer toward Makkah

6 9.4 Scholarship & Learning
Highly valued Arabic was accepted language of Islam Shared language and love of learning allowed scholars (students) in Europe, North Africa & the Middle East to exchange ideas

7 Scholarship & Learning: House of Wisdom
Baghdad became a major center of learning Caliph al-Ma’mun founded the House of Wisdom (830) Scholars from many lands gather there to do research Translated texts from Greece, Persia, India & China

8 Scholarship & Learning: Great Centers of Learning
Fatimid dynasty built the Cairo capital in Egypt (similar to Baghdad) Most advanced university in the Muslim world Hall of Wisdom – scholars and ordinary people can visit their library to read Muslim capital, Cordoba in Spain became a large and wealthy city Jews, Christian, & Muslims studied there

9 Scholarship & Learning
Philosopher – scholar, teacher or thinker who seeks knowledge Muslims studied books & ancient Greek thinkers, such as the philosophers: Plato Aristotle Muslim philosophers used reason & logic (common sense) to try to prove important truths

10 Scholarship & Learning: Al-Kindi
Al-Kindi – a 9th century Arab philosopher Said “Humans had two sources of knowledge: reason & revelation by God” Use reason to understand faith Some truths are knows only through God’s word need to be belief in things that cannot be proven

11 Scholarship & Learning: Ibn Sina
Ibn Sina – Persian who is Islam’s most famous philosopher Known as Avicenna in Europe Believed all knowledge came from God Truth can be known through revelation & reason Believed soul was immortal (able to live forever) Translated & influenced many medieval European thinkers

12 9.5 Science & Technology Qur’an instructed Muslims to learn more about the world God made Muslims advanced in science & technology

13 Science & Technology: Zoology
Evolution – slow process of change in plants and animals from simpler forms to more complex forms Zoology – scientific study of animals Books written on structure of animals’ bodies Studied how to make medicines from animals’ parts al-Jahiz presented theories about the evolution of animals Created zoos

14 Science & Technology: Astronomy
Astronomy – study of objects in the universe Muslims wanted to learn about the universe Navigational tools created to locate the direction of Makkah Worshippers far from the holy city can pray facing the right direction Found accurate times for prayer and the length of the month of Ramadan Realized Earth rotates rather than the Earth being the center of the universe

15 Science & Technology: Irrigation & Underground Wells
Water was scarce & land was hot and dry Build dams & aqueducts Improved canals & underground wells Used water wheels to bring water up from canals & reservoirs

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