6 Practices of Islam No pork, alcohol Male circumcision Polygamy acceptableUsury forbiddenObservation of feast daysSimplicity and asceticismRapid growth and spread of religion
7 The Qur’an Central text of Islam 114 chapters (sûras) Collation of Muhammad’s oral revelations114 chapters (sûras)Written in ArabicCannot be translatedSource of unifications for all MuslimsMemorization and recitationQur’an, Hadith, Shari’a
8 Calligraphy “Beautiful writing” Kufic (characteristic form) Decorative feature of mosquesAbstract, geometric designs with textNo depictions of divinityArabesqueNo narrative scenes
10 Islamic Architecture Functions of Islamic mosques Large gathering area Community gathering centersLarge gathering areaMinbarMichrabFountains
11 Islamic Architecture: The Dome of the Rock Caliph Abd al MalikTemple Mount, JerusalemOctagonal building, golden domeRoman+Byzantine architectureLavish mosaicsQur’anic versesUncertain original functionality
18 Maqsura screen of the Córdoba Mosque [Image 8.8]Maqsura screen of the Córdoba Mosque
19 Islamic Architecture: The Alhambra Exterior : complex of towers and wallsIslamic university?Infusion of interior streamsPalace of the MyrtlesPublic occasionsPalace of the LionsPrivate residencePinnacle of opulence
23 Sufism Sunni and Shi’a traditions Sufism = mystical dimension of Islam Sheyks and disciplesRetirement in povertyPiety and repentanceSufi tariqas in North Africa, Egypt
24 Sufi Writers Saint Rabia Rumi Aphorisms, poems, meditations Focus on the love of God“possess nothing…except Allah”RumiPersian poems (rhyming couplets)Discourses on mystical experiencesRecitation and movement (dervishes)
25 The Culture of Islam and the West Abbasid DynastyCaliph Al-Mamun’s “House of Wisdom”Translations of Greek textsAdvances in mathematics, medicineAl-Khwarizmi, Al-Uqlidisi, Al-Hazen, Rhazes, Avicenna, AverröesMoses Maimonides, Jewish physicians
26 The Culture of Islam and the West Exchange of goods / ideasQuality swords, silk (damask), coffeeWindmillsLexicon contributionsAl-GhazaliThe Incoherence of the PhilosophersAverröes“He of the Great Commentary”The Incoherence of Incoherence
27 Chapter Eight: Discussion Questions In what ways are the Five Pillars of Islam similar to the basic tenets of Christianity? Explain the similarities and differences between the two religions.What role did Islamic culture play in the tradition of Western literary (and, thus, philosophical) thought? What circumstances facilitated this contribution?To what must we attribute the slow movement of ideas from their Islamic origins to the Western world? Does the Western canon today, in your opinion, assign adequate notoriety to those non-Western advanced thinkers? What are the implications of recognizing the origin of a technology? Explain.
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