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Culture and Values, 6th Ed. Cunningham and Reich

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Presentation on theme: "Culture and Values, 6th Ed. Cunningham and Reich"— Presentation transcript:

1 Culture and Values, 6th Ed. Cunningham and Reich
Chapter Eight: Islam Culture and Values, 6th Ed. Cunningham and Reich


3 Muhammad and the Birth of Islam
Muhammad born in Mecca (570) Fatima, piety and purity Revelations of God through Gabriel From Mecca to Medina - Hegira (622) Qa’aba Islam: “submission to God”

4 Five Pillars of Islam Recitation of the Muslim act of faith
Obligation of prayer Charity Fasting during Ramadan Pilgrimage (Haj)


6 Practices of Islam No pork, alcohol Male circumcision
Polygamy acceptable Usury forbidden Observation of feast days Simplicity and asceticism Rapid growth and spread of religion

7 The Qur’an Central text of Islam 114 chapters (sûras)
Collation of Muhammad’s oral revelations 114 chapters (sûras) Written in Arabic Cannot be translated Source of unifications for all Muslims Memorization and recitation Qur’an, Hadith, Shari’a

8 Calligraphy “Beautiful writing” Kufic (characteristic form)
Decorative feature of mosques Abstract, geometric designs with text No depictions of divinity Arabesque No narrative scenes


10 Islamic Architecture Functions of Islamic mosques Large gathering area
Community gathering centers Large gathering area Minbar Michrab Fountains

11 Islamic Architecture: The Dome of the Rock
Caliph Abd al Malik Temple Mount, Jerusalem Octagonal building, golden dome Roman+Byzantine architecture Lavish mosaics Qur’anic verses Uncertain original functionality


13 Islamic Architecture: Mosque of Damascus
Abd al Walid Lavish interior decoration Marble Byzantine mosaics Caliph’s palace



16 Islamic Architecture: Mosque in Córdoba
Muslim capital in Spain Rival of Great Mosque of Damascus Al-Hakam Constantinople artisans, workmen 17 tons of tesserae Survived the Reconquista


18 Maqsura screen of the Córdoba Mosque
[Image 8.8] Maqsura screen of the Córdoba Mosque

19 Islamic Architecture: The Alhambra
Exterior : complex of towers and walls Islamic university? Infusion of interior streams Palace of the Myrtles Public occasions Palace of the Lions Private residence Pinnacle of opulence


21 Islamic Architecture: Taj Mahal
Mughal reign Emperor Shah Jahan Tribute to wife, Mumtaz Mahal Dome atop octagonal structure Highly polished white marble Restrained exterior decoration Inspired by Qur’an

22 [Image 8.10] Taj Mahal

23 Sufism Sunni and Shi’a traditions Sufism = mystical dimension of Islam
Sheyks and disciples Retirement in poverty Piety and repentance Sufi tariqas in North Africa, Egypt

24 Sufi Writers Saint Rabia Rumi Aphorisms, poems, meditations
Focus on the love of God “possess nothing…except Allah” Rumi Persian poems (rhyming couplets) Discourses on mystical experiences Recitation and movement (dervishes)

25 The Culture of Islam and the West
Abbasid Dynasty Caliph Al-Mamun’s “House of Wisdom” Translations of Greek texts Advances in mathematics, medicine Al-Khwarizmi, Al-Uqlidisi, Al-Hazen, Rhazes, Avicenna, Averröes Moses Maimonides, Jewish physicians

26 The Culture of Islam and the West
Exchange of goods / ideas Quality swords, silk (damask), coffee Windmills Lexicon contributions Al-Ghazali The Incoherence of the Philosophers Averröes “He of the Great Commentary” The Incoherence of Incoherence

27 Chapter Eight: Discussion Questions
In what ways are the Five Pillars of Islam similar to the basic tenets of Christianity? Explain the similarities and differences between the two religions. What role did Islamic culture play in the tradition of Western literary (and, thus, philosophical) thought? What circumstances facilitated this contribution? To what must we attribute the slow movement of ideas from their Islamic origins to the Western world? Does the Western canon today, in your opinion, assign adequate notoriety to those non-Western advanced thinkers? What are the implications of recognizing the origin of a technology? Explain.

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