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Chapter Eight: Islam Culture and Values, 6 th Ed. Cunningham and Reich.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter Eight: Islam Culture and Values, 6 th Ed. Cunningham and Reich."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter Eight: Islam Culture and Values, 6 th Ed. Cunningham and Reich

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3 Muhammad and the Birth of Islam  Muhammad born in Mecca (570)  Fatima, piety and purity  Revelations of God through Gabriel  From Mecca to Medina - Hegira (622)  Qa’aba  Islam: “submission to God”

4 Five Pillars of Islam  Recitation of the Muslim act of faith  Obligation of prayer  Charity  Fasting during Ramadan  Pilgrimage (Haj)

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6 Practices of Islam  No pork, alcohol  Male circumcision  Polygamy acceptable  Usury forbidden  Observation of feast days  Simplicity and asceticism –Rapid growth and spread of religion

7 The Qur’an  Central text of Islam –Collation of Muhammad’s oral revelations  114 chapters (sûras)  Written in Arabic –Cannot be translated  Source of unifications for all Muslims  Memorization and recitation  Qur’an, Hadith, Shari’a

8 Calligraphy  “Beautiful writing”  Kufic (characteristic form)  Decorative feature of mosques  Abstract, geometric designs with text –No depictions of divinity –Arabesque –No narrative scenes

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10 Islamic Architecture  Functions of Islamic mosques –Community gathering centers  Large gathering area –Minbar –Michrab –Fountains

11 Islamic Architecture: The Dome of the Rock  Caliph Abd al Malik –Temple Mount, Jerusalem  Octagonal building, golden dome  Roman+Byzantine architecture  Lavish mosaics  Qur’anic verses  Uncertain original functionality

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13 Islamic Architecture: Mosque of Damascus  Abd al Walid  Lavish interior decoration –Marble –Byzantine mosaics  Caliph’s palace

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16 Islamic Architecture: Mosque in Córdoba  Muslim capital in Spain  Rival of Great Mosque of Damascus  Al-Hakam –Constantinople artisans, workmen –17 tons of tesserae  Survived the Reconquista

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18 [Image 8.8] Maqsura screen of the Córdoba Mosque

19 Islamic Architecture: The Alhambra  Exterior : complex of towers and walls  Islamic university?  Infusion of interior streams  Palace of the Myrtles –Public occasions  Palace of the Lions –Private residence –Pinnacle of opulence

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21 Islamic Architecture: Taj Mahal  Mughal reign  Emperor Shah Jahan –Tribute to wife, Mumtaz Mahal  Dome atop octagonal structure  Highly polished white marble –Restrained exterior decoration  Inspired by Qur’an

22 [Image 8.10] Taj Mahal

23 Sufism  Sunni and Shi’a traditions  Sufism = mystical dimension of Islam –Sheyks and disciples –Retirement in poverty –Piety and repentance  Sufi tariqas in North Africa, Egypt

24 Sufi Writers  Saint Rabia –Aphorisms, poems, meditations –Focus on the love of God –“possess nothing…except Allah”  Rumi –Persian poems (rhyming couplets) –Discourses on mystical experiences –Recitation and movement (dervishes)

25 The Culture of Islam and the West  Abbasid Dynasty  Caliph Al-Mamun’s “House of Wisdom” –Translations of Greek texts  Advances in mathematics, medicine –Al-Khwarizmi, Al-Uqlidisi, Al-Hazen, Rhazes, Avicenna, Averröes –Moses Maimonides, Jewish physicians

26 The Culture of Islam and the West  Exchange of goods / ideas –Quality swords, silk (damask), coffee –Windmills –Lexicon contributions  Al-Ghazali –The Incoherence of the Philosophers  Averröes –“He of the Great Commentary” –The Incoherence of Incoherence

27 Chapter Eight: Discussion Questions  In what ways are the Five Pillars of Islam similar to the basic tenets of Christianity? Explain the similarities and differences between the two religions.  What role did Islamic culture play in the tradition of Western literary (and, thus, philosophical) thought? What circumstances facilitated this contribution?  To what must we attribute the slow movement of ideas from their Islamic origins to the Western world? Does the Western canon today, in your opinion, assign adequate notoriety to those non-Western advanced thinkers? What are the implications of recognizing the origin of a technology? Explain.


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