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ILLE HIC EST RAPHAEL TIMUIT QUO SOSPITE VINCI RERUM MAGNA PARENS ET MORIENTE MORI Here lies Raphael; the mother of all things (Nature) feared to be overcome by him while he was living, and while he was dying, she feared death
Europe. C. 1560
Religious Situation in Europe, c.1560
KEY DATES: MEDIEVAL TO EARLY MODERN EUROPE 1450 Johannes Gutenberg prints a Bible with movable types 1476 William Caxton sets up first printing press in London 1485 Henry VII, the first Tudor king, ascends the throne 1492 Discovery of America 1492 Death of Lorenzo de’ Medici 1499 Desiderius Erasmus travels to England; meets Thomas More 1509 Henry VIII ascends the throne 1516 Thomas More, Utopia; Ludovico Ariosto, Orlando Furioso 1513 Niccolò Machiavelli, The Prince 1527 Martin Luther’s ninety-five theses 1534 Act of Supremacy 1543 Copernicus, On the Revolution of the Spheres 1547 Edward VI ascends the throne 1553 Mary Tudor ascends the throne 1558 Elizabeth I ascends the throne
TEXTS CONTEXTS 1485 Accession of Henry VII inaugurates Tudor dynasty 1499 Desiderius Erasmus first visits England; meets Thomas More ca Amerigo Vespucci, New World and Four Voyages ca Leonardo paints Mona Lisa Michaelangelo paints Sistine Chapel ceiling 1509 Death of Henry VII; accession of Henry VIII 1511 Erasmus, Praise of Folly 1513 James IV of Scotland killed at Battle of Flodden; succeeded by James V 1516 More, Utopia. Ludovico Ariosto, Orlando furioso ca John Skelton, The Tunning of Elinour Rumming 1517 Martin Luther's Ninety-Five Theses; beginning of the Reformation in Germany
1519 Cortés invades Mexico. Magellen begins his voyage around the world 1520s-30s Thomas Wyatt's poems circulating in manuscript 1521 Pope Leo X names Henry VIII "Defender of the Faith" 1525 William Tyndale's English translation of the New Testament 1528 Baldessare Castiglione, The Courtier More is Lord Chancellor 1532 Nicolò Machiavelli, The Prince (written 1513) Henry VIII divorces Catherine of Aragon to marry Anne Boleyn; Elizabeth I born; Henry declares himself head of the English church 1535 More beheaded 1537 John Calvin, The Institution of Christian Religion 1537 Establishment of Calvin's theocracy at Geneva 1542 Roman Inquisition. James IV of Scotland dies; succeeded by daughter Mary 1543 Copernicus, On the Revolution of the Spheres 1547 Book of Homilies1547 Death of Henry VIII; accession of Protestant Edward VI 1549 Book of Common Prayer
The Tudor Dynasty
Army and Navy and the State administration were reorganised and put under the direct and strict control of the king. A mercantile fleet was created to promote trade with foreign countries. Political alliances were made; Henry VII married his eldest son, Arthur, to Catherine of Aragon, the aunt of the future Emperor Charles V of Spain. King Henry VII Under his rule England enjoyed a fairly long spell of unbroken peace and prosperity: Tudor Grammar Schools with their more or less uniform curricula had established the possibility of loyalty to a community of the educated laity.
H ENRY V III ( ) His accession was welcomed by humanists scholars, Erasmus of Rotterdam at their head, as the beginning of a new Golden Age. Henry received classical education from John Skelton. He was a typical Renaissance prince who maintained a magnificent court as he liked music and dancing; he was a poet and athlete. He was also a great patron of the arts and intellectuals. Yet he was cruel and executed all those who displeased him. He spent money on warship and guns, making the English fighting fleet the best in Europe.
E dward VI ( ) Henry VIII died in 1574 and was succeeded by his nine years old son Edward, an invalid. King Edward continued his father’s moves towards English Protestantism under guidance of his two advisors, his uncle, the idealist Seymour, and the ambitious John, Earl of Warwick. He was also helped by Archbishop Cranmer, who wrote The Book of Common Prayer. a Protestant catechism and prayer book, was issued and church services in England instead of Latin were made obligatory. The Book of Common Prayer replaced the Latin missal, it was introduced in 1549 and revised several times until It is considered a landmark of English prose.
M ARY ( ) She was the daughter of Catherine of Aragon and the wife of Philip II of Spain. During her reign Puritans were put to death. The celebration of Puritan martyrs had survived in John Foxe’s Book of Martyrs ( ), whilst the Catholic queen for he intolerance as for religious matters became popularly known as Bloody Mary. A great amount of executions was carried out under her orders, 300 Protestants were burned at the stake, including her father’s friends Latimer and Cramner.
Elizabeth I ( ) A critical time of English history. England was under constant threat of its Catholic enemies, Spain in particular. Elizabeth managed to steer the Church of England between the two extremes of Catholicism on the one hand, and strongly radical forms of Protestantism – in the form of Puritanism – on the other. The religious compromise granted internal peace and enabled England to increase wealth and commercial power
JAMES I ( ) He was the son of Mary Stuart and her second husband, Lord Darnley. He became the first of the Stuart kings in England, ruling both countries as James VI of Scotland and James I of England. He showed a belief in the divine right of kings to rule. And in the subjection of Parliament to the king’s will; he also insisted on strict conformity to the rites of the Anglican Church. This excluded both Catholics and Puritans from government, since conformity to the Church of England was required to hold public offices.