2The Spirit of Rebirth Renaissance – a French word meaning “rebirth” Renewed interest in classical learning, the writings of ancient Greece and RomeA renewal of the human spirit, of curiosity and creativity
3A Flourish of Genius Began in Italy Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Christopher Columbus, Galileo, etc.Catholic Church was very rich and powerful, even in political affairsOptimistic view of humanity was expressed by many Renaissance artists
4HumanismTried to answer questions like “What is a good life?” and “How do I lead a good life?”Sought to harmonize the Bible and the classics, using the classics to strength (not discredit) Christianity
5The New Technology Gutenberg invented the printing press Before the printing press, books were written out by hand (difficult process, expensive to purchase, and few books were available)
6The ReformationRejected the authority of the pope and the Italian churchmenFeelings of patriotism and national identity made the English resent the financial burdens placed on them by the VaticanMartin Luther – founded a new kind of Christianity, based on a personal understanding of the Bible instead of on what the pope said
7King Versus PopeKing Henry VIII asked for a divorce from his wife of 24-yearstheoretical reason – she had previously been married to his brotherreal reasons – she was too old to give him a male heir and he wished to marry Anne BoleynPope refused because he was controlled by the queen’s nephew.Henry VIII appointed a new archbishop and declared himself head of the English (Anglican) Church.
8The Protestant Reformation Many people were dissatisfied with the new church because it wasn’t reformed enough – it was merely a copy of Catholicism.Some said that religion was solely a matter between the individual and God
9Henry VIII Had six wives: Divorced, beheaded, died divorced, beheaded, survivedFooled around, but couldn’t tolerate any suspicion of his wives’ fidelityWas an important figure and deserves the title of Renaissance manSurvived by three legitimate children – Mary, Elizabeth, and Edward
10The Boy King and Bloody Mary At age 9, Edward began to rule in name only. Died of tuberculosis.Mary was Catholic and determined to avenge the wrongs done to her mother.Restored the pope’s power in England and ruthlessly hunted down ProtestantsBurned about 300 subjects at the stakeMarried the king of Spain, a country England was beginning to fear and hate
11Elizabeth: The Virgin Queen One of the most brilliant and successful monarchs in historyReestablished the Church of England and rejected the pope’s authorityResisted marriage and officially remained “the Virgin Queen” because her strength lay in her independence and her ability to play one suitor off another.
12A True DaughterSurvived many plots against her life, several of which were initiated by her cousin, Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots (heir to England’s throne)Elizabeth (after 20 years of plots against her life) had Mary beheaded
13The Spanish ArmadaKing Philip of Spain used Mary’s execution as an excuse to invade England with the Spanish ArmadaEngland’s Royal Navy destroyed the Spanish Armada, assuring England’s independence from the Catholic countries
14A Dull Man Succeeds a Witty Woman Elizabeth (childless) was succeeded by James VI of Scotland, aka James I of England (son of Mary Stuart)He tried hard – patronized Shakespeare, sponsored a new translation of the Bible, and was a peaceful ruler – but couldn’t follow in Elizabeth’s footsteps.
15The Decline of the Renaissance Charles I, who reigned after James I, was beheaded by some of his subjectsParliament and Puritan dictator Oliver Cromwell ruled for the next 11 yearsScientific truths were soon to challenge long-accepted religious beliefs.