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Presentation on theme: "COLONIAL PUBLICATIONS"— Presentation transcript:


1439 Johannes Gutenberg invents the printing press 1640s English newspapers begin to use headlines, advertisements and woodcuts Late 1600s Newspapers gain popularity throughout western Europe 1690 The first newspapers were printed in Boston

3 The First Publications
Newspapers became popular later than other regions because the population of the colonies was so sparse First newspaper in America was called Publick Occurrences Both Forreign and Domestick Issued in 1690 by Benjamin Harris

4 The First Publications
The first publications in the colonies proved to be uncontroversial The Boston News-Letter, The Boston Gazette and The American Weekly Mercury were careful and did not offend colonial authorities In New York, The New York Gazette and New York Weekly Journal prevailed in the early eighteenth century

5 The New England Courant
Published in 1721 by James Franklin The Courant was the first time a newspaper in the colonies had provided an opinion or an argument for any particular issue Franklin was incarcerated in 1722 In order to keep the publication going, Franklin passed the torch to his younger brother Benjamin Franklin

6 The New York Weekly Journal
Began publications in 1733 by John Peter Zenger Criticized William Cosby (governor at time) and the colony’s administration Pointed out the flaws in system, and did not support any of the colonial policies

7 The Zenger Trial (1733) Zenger was arrested and charged with seditious libel The ultimatum pronounced Zenger as innocent The lawyer, Andrew Hamilton, inspired the jury to see the newspaper as a “struggle for freedom” Following the trial, no American journalists were prosecuted by British authorities

8 Publications During Revolution

9 Stamp Act (1765) Because of the Stamp Act, buying newspapers became a hassle for the lower classes The newspapers were against the act and began to rebel The Maryland Gazette began calling itself An Apparition of the Late Maryland Gazette

10 Townshend Acts (1767) Following the repeal of the Stamp Act, British parliament approve the Townshend Acts in 1767 Townshend Acts were on glass, lead, paint, tea and paper Once again, the newspapers rebelled and another victory was attained The victory was in large part because of the press

11 Common Sense Pamphlet published by Thomas Paine in 1776
Explained, in the most common terms, that it was time for the Americans to separate from Great Britain First work to openly ask for independence from Great Britain

12 Pro-Revolution Newspapers
The majority of newspapers were for the separation These newspapers were The Boston Gazette, New York Journal, Boston Spy, Providence Gazette The Providence Gazette was published by two women, Sarah and Mary Katherine Goddard

13 Sons of Liberty and Publications
The newspapers and publications gave voice to the Sons of Liberty If there were no publications, the Sons of Liberty would have had to rely on only the word of mouth The vast majority of newspapers showed loyalty to the Sons of Liberty and the revolution

14 Loyal Newspapers The New York Gazetteer (James Rivington) gave voice to the loyalists that wanted to remain with Great Britain The Sons of Liberty were against Rivington, despite their ideal of free press Rivington, because of their reaction, grew more open to loyalist opinions

15 Importance of Publications
One of the American Revolution’s main causes is the circulation of the publications It was the first time that a press was open about overthrowing the government Newspapers could be seen as the most important publication because they had to circulate periodically

16 Urgency of the Publications
Perhaps the newspapers and pamphlets were seen as radical because the editors and authors could not hide from the British once their works were published However, no one from the press felt stopped by the British Usually, newspapers were intended to preserve the power of authorities, but there was a large turning point beginning in the Americas

1690 First publication in the colonies 17th Century Newspapers and publications in colonies were not controversial, yet 1721 James Franklin 1733 Zenger Trial

1765 Stamp Act 1767 Townshend Acts 1770 Boston Massacre occurs, killing five people 1776 Thomas Paine publishes Common Sense July 4, 1776 Independence is gained for the Americans

19 Bibliography Brinkley Text Book's% 20page.htm /news/


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