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By: Brigid Tracy; Haylee Alonso; Jess Duthie; Nicole Chagachbanian, Hannah Grogan.

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Presentation on theme: "By: Brigid Tracy; Haylee Alonso; Jess Duthie; Nicole Chagachbanian, Hannah Grogan."— Presentation transcript:

1 By: Brigid Tracy; Haylee Alonso; Jess Duthie; Nicole Chagachbanian, Hannah Grogan

2 Important Terms Cranial- toward or pertaining to the head Caudal- toward or pertaining to the tail or rear Rostral- the most forward portion of the body Dorsal- toward the back Ventral- away from the back or toward the belly Medial- toward the middle Lateral- away from the middle Proximal- the point nearest to the central axis Distal- the point furthest from the central axis Superficial- toward the surface Deep- away from the surface Superior- toward the top of a vertical plane Inferior- away from the top of a vertical plane

3 Tools Blunt probe- very useful in tearing through connective tissue Scissors- used to cut through skin, muscle Scalpel- used to gently scrape away connective tissue Needle probe- used as a pointer, or to attach the specimen to the dissecting tray Forceps- used to grasp small objects and to remove connective tissue Protective gear- because the preservative can be irritating to your skin and damage you clothes

4 Head and Neck Pinnae(external ears) Eyes Superior palpebrae( upper eyelids) Inferior palpebrae(lower eyelids) Nostrils( external nares) Vibrissae (whiskers) Nicitating membrane- originates in the lower medial corner of the eye; transparent 3 rd eyelid

5 Trunk Thoracic region Abdominal region Pelvic region Pectoral region- ventral side of thorax Back- dorsal side of thorax Nipples- ventral surface of trunk in thoracic and abdominal regions; 2 rows of paired nipples associated with mammary glands Genital region- posterior end of the pelvic region in both sexes Testes Penis Urogenital aperture- external opening to the vagina and urethra

6 Useful Terms Flexion- decrease in the angle at the joint between articulating bones Extension- decrease in the angle at a joint Abduction- movement away from the body's midline Adduction- movement toward the body’s midline Rotation- movement around a central axis Supination- lateral rotation of the hand upward Pronation- medial rotation of the hand downward Eversion- rotation of the sole of the foot outward Inversion- rotation of the sole of the foot inward Circumduction- rotation of a limb around a central axis

7 Limbs and Tail Limbs- as a typical quadruped mammal, the cat has four limbs- two upper forelimbs and two lower hind limbs. Tail- is covered with variable amounts of fur and is useful as a rudder and balance beam during locomotion

8 Skinning

9 Pectoralis Major Origin: cranial half of sternum Insertion: proximal third of the humerus Action: adduction of the forelimb

10 Pectoralis Minor Origin: six vertebrae or xiphoid process Insertion: ventral border of the humerus Action: adduction of the forelimb

11 External Oblique Origin: lumbodorsal fascia of the caudal ribs Insertion: sternum and along linea alba Action: compression of the abdomen

12 Internal Oblique Origin: lumbodorsal fascia of the caudal ribs Insertion: sternum and along the linea alba Action: compression of the abdomen

13 Transverse abdominis Origin: aponeurosis of the caudal costal cartilages, lumbar vertebrae, and ventral border of ilium Insertion: along linea alba Action: compresses the abdomen

14 Rectus Abdominis Origin: iliac crest Insertion: cartilage of the S’h-7’h ribs and the xiphoid Action: compresses the abdomen and flexes the trunk

15 Trapezius Origin: 7 th thoracic vertebrae and thoracic vertebrae Insertion: acromion process, scapula, and clavicle Action: extends humerus, adducts scapula

16 Latissimus Dorsi Origin: 4 th or 5 th thoracic vertebrae to the 6 th lumbar vertebrae Insertion: Medial surface of the humerus Action: pulls forelimb dorsocaudally

17 Sternomastoid Origin: cranial border of the manubrium Insertion: lamboidal ridge and mastoid process of the temporal bone Action: contraction by both will flex head; individual contraction will rotate head

18 Cleidomastoid Origin: mastoid process of temporal bone Insertion: lamboidal ridge and mastoid process of the temporal bone Action: contraction by both will flex head; individual contraction will rotate head

19 Biceps Brachii Origin: scapula Insertion: radius Action: flexion of the forearm, but also supinates the Manus and stabilizes the shoulder joint

20 Triceps Brachii Origin: lateral head of the humerus; long head (scapula); medial head (medial side of humerus) Insertion: Olecranon process of ulna Action: extension of antebrachium

21 Sartorius Origin: iliac crest Insertion: fascia surrounding the knee and tibia Action: adduction and rotation of the femur and extensions of the shank

22 Gracilis Origin: Ischium and pubis Insertion: thin Apo neurosis associated with the shank Action: adducts and retracts the thigh

23 Biceps Femoris Origin: one head in the cat; ischium Insertion: tibia and patella Action: abducts the thigh and flexes the shank

24 Semitendinosis Origin: ischium Insertion: medial surface of the tibia Action: flexes lower leg

25 Vastus Medialis Origin: shaft of the femur Insertion: tibia

26 Rectus Femoris Origin: ilium near acetabulum Insertion: tibia

27 Vastus Lateralis Origin: greater trochanter and shaft of femur Insertion: tibia

28 Gastrocnemius Origin: lateral head (patella/femur/tibia) medial head (femur) Insertion: Achilles tendon that attaches to calcaneus bone Action: extends the pes and flexes the antebrachium Achilles tendon

29 Gluteus Maximus (smaller) Origin: transverse processes of the last sacral and first caudal verterbrae Insertion: greater trochanter of femur Action: abducts thigh

30 Gluteus Medius (bigger) Origin: iliac crest, last sacral vertebrae, 1’ caudal vertebrae Insertion: greater trochanter of the femur Action: abducts the thigh

31 External Intercostals Origin: cranial rib Insertion: adjacent caudal rib Action: protraction of the irbs, which is required for inspiration

32 Longissimus Dorsi Origin: spines of vertebrae; ilium Insertion: processes of more cranial vertebrae Action: extends the vertebral column

33 Gastrointestinal tract Long winding tube that carries food through its length Esophagus: Liver: Stomach: Small Intestine: Large intestine:

34 Accessory organs Supportive organs that lie outside the GI tract (teeth salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas)

35 Diaphragm An internal muscular partition dividing the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavity

36 Lingual frenulum The ventral fold of tissue attaching the tongue to the floor of the mouth

37 Filiform Sharp projections off of the cats tongue to give a friction surface for grooming

38 Esophagus Long, muscular tube that transports swallowed materials from the pharynx to the stomach (behind trachea)

39 Mesentery Double layer of peritoneum that extends from the visceral peritoneum of the small and large intestines to the dorsal abdominal wall

40 Liver Prominent, dark-brown organ lying immediately deep to the diaphragm with most of its bulk on the right side

41 Gallbladder Thin walled sac that receives newly manufactured bile from the liver for temporary storage

42 Stomach J-Shaped enlargement of the GI tract; functions as a temporary reservoir for swallowed food

43 Small Intestine Long winding tube that finalizes chemical digestion and is the only side for nutrient absorption

44 Large Intestine Caudal portion of the GI tract; absorbs water from the contents that arrive from the small intestine, prepares and forms the feces

45 Rectum Terminal segment of the large intestine

46 Pancreas Located just below the greater curvature of the stomach; functions in the secretion of hormones that regulate blood sugar levels, secretion of digestive enzymes and sodium bicarbonate

47 Larynx Box like structure composed of 5 cartilages that create a small chamber; houses the vocal cords which produces sound when exhaled air in channeled through

48 Trachea Tubular air passageway extending from the larynx to the thoracic vertebra, where it divides

49 Lungs Multi-lobed structures located lateral, cranial, and caudal to the heart; consists of many air- filled alveoli

50 Kidneys Bean shaped organs partially embedded in fat against the dorsal body wall

51 Ureters Narrow tubes that transport urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder at the base of the pelvic cavity

52 Urinary Bladder Reservoir for urine; has the ability to expand

53 Thoracic Cavity (or chest cavity) is the chamber of the human body (and other animal bodies) that is protected by the thoracic wall (thoraciccage and associated skin, muscle, and fascia).

54 Pleural Cavity a closed space (like the inside of a balloon) within which the lung has grown. As the lung grows into the space, it picks up a layer of pleura (outside of balloon) and this is called the visceral pleura. The remainder of the pleura is called the parietal pleura.

55 Pericardial Cavity or pericardial space) is a potential space between the parietal pericardium and visceral layer. It contains a supply of serous fluid. The serous fluid that is found in this space is known as thepericardial fluid.

56 Apex and Base Base: The part of the heart formed mainly by the left atrium and to a lesser extent by the posterior part of the right atrium, directed backward and to the right, and separated from the vertebral column by the esophagus and aorta. Apex: the blunt extremity of the heart formed by the left ventricle

57 Family Picture


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