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Set 2: Muscles of trunk and arms. Muscles of Respiration Breathing requires the use of muscles – diaphragm – external intercostal muscles – internal intercostal.

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Presentation on theme: "Set 2: Muscles of trunk and arms. Muscles of Respiration Breathing requires the use of muscles – diaphragm – external intercostal muscles – internal intercostal."— Presentation transcript:

1 Set 2: Muscles of trunk and arms

2 Muscles of Respiration Breathing requires the use of muscles – diaphragm – external intercostal muscles – internal intercostal muscles Contraction of the first 2 produces Inspiration Contraction of the last produces Forced Expiration Normal Expiration requires little muscular activity – elastic recoil of tissues and gravity collapsing the chest – only inspiratory muscles active in braking action, so exhalation is smooth

3 Muscles of Respiration -- Diaphragm Muscular dome between thoracic and abdominal cavities Muscle fascicles extend to a fibrous central tendon Contraction flattens it – increases the vertical dimension of the thorax drawing air into the lungs – raises the abdominal pressure to help expel urine, feces and facilitating childbirth Central tendon

4 Muscles of Respiration -- Intercostals External intercostals – extend downward and anteriorly from rib to rib – pull ribcage up & outward during inspiration Internal intercostals – extend upward and anteriorly from rib to rib – pull ribcage downward during forced expiration

5 Muscles of the Abdomen 4 Pairs of sheetlike muscles – external oblique – internal oblique – transverse abdominis – rectus abdominis Functions – support the viscera – stabilize the vertebral column – help in respiration, urination, defecation & childbirth

6 Rectus Abdominis & External Oblique External oblique – superficial – downward – anteriorly – inguinal ligament Rectus abdominis – vertical, straplike – tendinous intersections – rectus sheath – linea alba External oblique Rectus abdominis

7 Internal Oblique -Transverse Abdominis Internal oblique – anteriorly – upwards Transverse abdominis – horizontal fiber orientation – deepest layer Transverse abdominis Internal oblique

8 Superficial Muscles of the Back Trapezius Latissimus dorsi Semispinalis Splenius Levator scapulae Rhomboideus Supraspinatus Infraspinatus Teres major Gluteus maximus Gluteus medius

9 Anterior Scapular Muscle Group Pectoralis Minor – ribs 3-5 to coracoid process of scapula – protracts & depresses scapula – lifts ribs during forced expiration Serratus Anterior – ribs 1-9 to medial border of scapula – abducts & rotates or depresses scapula – throwing muscle

10 Muscles Acting on the Scapula

11 Posterior Scapular Muscle Group 4 Muscles – superficial = Trapezius – deep = Rhomboids & Levator scapulae Trapezius – rotate scapula upward – retract scapula – depress scapula With Levator scapulae & Rhomboids elevates scapula With Serratus anterior depresses scapula

12 Rhomboideus mm. – medial border of scapula to C7-T1 Posterior Scapular Muscle Group Levator scapulae – from superior angle of scapula to C1-C4

13 Muscles Acting on the Humerus 9 Muscles cross the shoulder joint to the humerus – 2 axial muscles arise from axial skeleton – prime movers of humerus in flexion & extension – arise from sternum & clavicle OR T7-L5 & ilium Pectoralis major Latissimus dorsi

14 7 scapular muscles arise from scapula – Deltoid is prime mover flexion, extension and abduction of humerus – Coracobrachialis assists in flexion – Teres major assists in extension – Remaining 4 form the rotator cuff muscles that reinforce the shoulder joint capsule Muscles Acting on the Humerus

15 Posterior View of Chest in Cadaver

16 Rotator Cuff Muscles Extending from posterior scapula to humerus – supraspinatus – infraspinatus – teres Minor Extending from anterior scapula to humerus – subscapularis All 4 help reinforce joint capsule. Supraspinatus Infraspinatus Teres minor Subscapularis

17 Anterior View of Chest in Cadaver

18 Muscles Acting on the Elbow Principal flexors – biceps brachii inserts on radius – brachialis inserts on ulna Synergistic flexor – brachioradialis Prime extensor – triceps brachii inserts onto ulna

19 CS Through Upper Limb & Forearm

20 Supination & Pronation of the Forearm Supination Supinator muscle Palm facing anteriorly Pronation Pronator teres and Pronator quadratus mm. Palm faces posteriorly


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