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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Skeletal Muscles: Functional Groups 1.Agonist = Prime mover - Provides the major force for producing a specific.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Skeletal Muscles: Functional Groups 1.Agonist = Prime mover - Provides the major force for producing a specific."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Skeletal Muscles: Functional Groups 1.Agonist = Prime mover - Provides the major force for producing a specific movement 2.Antagonist - Opposes or reverses a particular movement 3.Synergist – Works together with a prime mover to add force or control 4.Fixator – Synergist that immobilizes a bone that is a muscle’s origin

2 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Naming Skeletal Muscles Location of attachments—named according to the bones to which they attach Location—bone or body region close to the muscle Action—e.g., flexor or extensor, muscles that flex or extend, respectively

3 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Naming Skeletal Muscles Shape—e.g., deltoid muscle (deltoid = triangle) Relative size—e.g., maximus (largest), minimus (smallest), longus (long) Number of origins—e.g., biceps (2 origins) and triceps (3 origins) Direction of fibers or fascicles—e.g., rectus (fibers run straight), transversus, and oblique (fibers run at angles to an defined axis)

4 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10.1 Patterns of fascicle arrangement in muscles. (a) (b) (e) (d) (g) (f) (c) (a)Circular (orbicularis oris) (b) Convergent (pectoralis major) (c) Parallel (sartorius) (d) Unipennate (extensor digitorum longus) (f) Fusiform (biceps brachii) (g) Multipennate (deltoid) (e) Bipennate (rectus femoris)

5 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6.2 Major skeletal muscle groups and their functions. (1 of 2)

6 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 6.2 Major skeletal muscle groups and their functions. (2 of 2)

7 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10.5 Posterior view of superficial muscles of the body. Arm Forearm Leg Hip Gluteus medius Gluteus maximus Thigh

8 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10.6 Lateral view of muscles of the scalp, face, and neck. Orbicularis oculi Zygomaticus minor and major Buccinator Orbicularis oris Platysma Frontal belly Occipital belly Temporalis Masseter Sternocleidomastoid Trapezius Epicranius Aponeurosis

9 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10.8a Muscles of the anterior neck and throat that promote swallowing. Anterior belly Posterior belly Hyoid bone Sternocleido- mastoid Digastric Thyroid gland (a)

10 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10.9a Muscles of the neck and vertebral column causing movements of the head and trunk. 1st cervical vertebra Sternocleido- mastoid (a) Anterior Base of occipital bone Middle scalene Anterior scalene Posterior scalene Mastoid process

11 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10.10a Muscles of respiration. External intercostal (a) Internal intercostal

12 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10.10b Muscles of respiration. Foramen for esophagus Costal cartilage Lumbar vertebra Xiphoid process of sternum Diaphragm Psoas major Foramen for inferior vena cava Central tendon of diaphragm Foramen for aorta 12th rib (b)

13 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10.11a Muscles of the abdominal wall. Transversus abdominis Internal oblique External oblique (a) Pectoralis major Rectus abdominis Serratus anterior aponeurosis

14 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10.11b Muscles of the abdominal wall. Transversus abdominis Lumbar fascia Lumbar fascia Internal oblique Pubic tubercle Rectus abdominis External oblique (b) IIiac crest

15 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10.13a Superficial muscles of the thorax and shoulder acting on the scapula and arm. Clavicle Serratus anterior Humerus Sternocleido- mastoid Deltoid Pectoralis major Sternum Biceps brachii (a)

16 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10.13c Superficial muscles of the thorax and shoulder acting on the scapula and arm. Trapezius (c) Clavicle Spine of scapula Humerus Deltoid Latissimus dorsi

17 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10.14b Muscles crossing the shoulder and elbow joint, causing movements of the arm and forearm, respectively. Spine of scapula (b) Posterior view Deltoid (cut) Greater tubercle of humerus Triceps brachii: Latissimus dorsi Humerus Olecranon process of ulna Lateral head Long head

18 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10.14c Muscles crossing the shoulder and elbow joint, causing movements of the arm and forearm, respectively. Long head Biceps brachii Short head O = origin I = insertion (c)

19 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10.15a Muscles of the anterior fascial compartment of the forearm acting on the right wrist and fingers. Extensor c.. r... l.. Flexor p.. l.. Medial epicondyle of humerus Flexor c.. r.. Flexor c.. u.. Flexor digitorum s.. (a)

20 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Flexor c.. u.. Extensor c.. u.. Extensor d.. m.. Extensor i.. (a) Extensor p.. l.. Extensor p.. b.. Extensor digitorum Extensor c.. r.. b.. Extensor c.. r.. l.. Figure 10.16a Muscles of the posterior fascial compartment of the right forearm acting on the wrist and fingers.

21 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10.17a Summary of actions of muscles of the arm and forearm. Triceps brachii Lateral head Humerus Long head Medial head (a) {Brachialis} Short head Long head (a) Muscles of the arm Extensors Flexors Others Posterior compartment of arm (extends elbow) Biceps brachii Anterior compartment of arm (flexes elbow)

22 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10.17b Summary of actions of muscles of the arm and forearm. Extensors Flexors Others (b) Flexors Extensors Ulna Posterior compartment of forearm (extends wrist and fingers) Others Radius (b) Muscles of the forearm Anterior compartment of forearm (flexes wrist and fingers)

23 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10.19a Anterior and medial muscles promoting movements of the thigh and leg. Iliac crest Psoas major Iliopsoas 12th rib Iliacus Anterior superior iliac spine Sartorius Quadriceps femoris Rectus femoris Vastus lateralis Vastus medialis (a) Patella 12th thoracic vertebra 5th lumbar vertebra Adductor longus

24 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10.19b Anterior and medial muscles promoting movements of the thigh and leg. (b) O = origin I = insertion Adductor longus Femur

25 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10.19c Anterior and medial muscles promoting movements of the thigh and leg. Vastus lateralis Vastus intermedius Vastus medialis (c) Patella Patellar ligament Rectus femoris (tendon cut) O = origin I = insertion muscles of Quadriceps group

26 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Gluteus medius Gluteus maximus Long head Semitendinosus Semimembranosus Short head Biceps femoris Hamstrings (a) Figure 10.20a Posterior muscles of the right hip and thigh.

27 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Tibialis anterior O = origin I = insertion (b) Figure 10.21b Muscles of the anterior compartment of the right leg.

28 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Patella Head of fibula Gastrocnemius Soleus Fibularis longus Tibialis anterior Lateral malleolus (a) Figure 10.22a Muscles of the lateral compartment of the right leg.

29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Fibularis longus Tendon of fibularis longus O = origin I = insertion (b) Figure 10.22b Muscles of the lateral compartment of the right leg.

30 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10.23a Muscles of the posterior compartment of the right leg. Gastrocnemius Medial head Lateral head Tendon of gastrocnemius Calcaneal tendon (Achilles) Calcaneus (a) Superficial view of the posterior leg.

31 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10.25a Summary of actions of muscles of the thigh and leg. Posterior compartment of thigh (flexes leg and extends thigh) Medial compartment (adducts thigh) Anterior compartment (extends leg) Vastus intermedius Rectus femoris Vastus medialis (a) Muscles of the thigh Posterior compartment muscles Anterior compartment muscle Medial compartment muscles of thigh and lateral compartment muscles of leg Adductors Vastus lateralis Hamstrings Femur (a)

32 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10.25b Summary of actions of muscles of the thigh and leg. Posterior compartment of leg (plantar flexes foot, flexes toes) Anterior compartment of leg (dorsiflexes foot, extends toes) Lateral compartment of leg (plantar flexes and everts foot); innervation Gastrocnemius and soleus Fibula Tibialis anterior Tibia Fibularis muscles (b) Muscles of the leg (b) Posterior compartment muscles Anterior compartment muscle Medial compartment muscles of thigh and lateral compartment muscles of leg

33 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 15.3a Extrinsic eye muscles. Inferior rectus muscle Inferior oblique muscle Superior oblique muscle Superior oblique tendon Superior rectus muscle Lateral rectus muscle (a) Lateral view of the right eye

34 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 15.3b Extrinsic eye muscles. Superior oblique muscle Trochlea Superior oblique tendon Superior rectus muscle (b) Superior view of the right eye Medial rectus muscle Inferior rectus muscle Lateral rectus muscle

35 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.


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