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Anatomy Review Cat Muscles Written by Eduardo Alvarez & Roberto Martinez Students of Professor Gonsalves’ LACC Anatomy 1 Class
MUSCLES OF MASTICATION
Masseter Origin: –Zygomatic Bone Insertion: –Mandible Action: –Elevates Mandible
Temporalis Origin: –Temporal Bone Insertion: –Mandible Action: –Elevates and Retracts Mandible
Digastric Origin: –Occipital Bone and Mastoid Process Insertion: –Mandible Action: –Depresses Lower Jaw
Mylohyoid Origin: –Mandible Insertion: –Hyoid Bone Action: –Raises Floor of Mouth and Pulls Hyoid Forward
NECK MUSCLES THAT MOVE THE HEAD
Sternomastoid (only in cats) Origin: –Sternum Insertion: –Mastoid Process Action: –Turns and Depresses Head
Cleido- mastoid Origin: –Clavicle Insertion: –Mastoid Process Action: –Pulls Head Laterally and Pulls Clavicle Craniad
MUSCLES OF HYOID, LAYRNX, & TONGUE
Sternohyoid Origin: –First Rib (Intercostal) Insertion: –Hyoid Bone Action: –Pulls Hyoid Caudally, Raises Ribs and Sternum
Sternothyroid Origin: –First Rib (Intercostal) Insertion: –Larynx Action: –Pulls Larynx Caudal (down)
Thyrohyoid Origin: –Thyroid Cartilage of Larynx Insertion: –Hyoid Bone Action: –Raises Larynx
Geniohyoid (deep to Mylohyoid) Origin: –Mandible Insertion: –Hyoid Bone Action: –Pulls Hyoid Craniad (up)
MUSCLES THAT ATTACH PECTORAL APPENDAGES TO THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN
Trapezius Origin: –Occipital Bone and Cervical and Thoracic Vertebrae Insertion: –Scapula and clavicle Action: –Raises Clavicle, Adducts, Elevates and Depresses Scapula
Latissimus Dorsi Origin: –Thoracic and Lumbar Vertebrae Insertion: –Humerus Action: –Pulls Arm Dorsad (back) and Caudad (down)
Rhomboideus Capitis Origin: –Lamboidal Ridge Insertion: –Scapula Action: –Pulls Scapula Craniad (up)
Rhomboideus Minor Origin: –Thoracic Vertebrae Insertion: –Scapula Action: –Pulls scapula dorsally and medially capitis
Rhomboideus Major Origin: –Thoracic Vertebrae Insertion: –Scapula Action: –Pulls Scapula Dorsally (toward back) and Medially (towards midline) capitis
Levator Scapulae Ventralis Origin: –Occipital Bone and Atlas (C 1 ) Insertion: –Scapula Action: –Pulls Scapula Craniad (toward head)
MUSCLES THAT ATTACH PECTORAL APPENDAGES TO VENTRAL AND BODY WALL
Pectoante- brachialis (cat only) Origin: –Sternum Insertion: –Forearm (proximal end) Action: –Adducts Arm
Pectoralis Major Origin: –Sternum Insertion: –Humerus Action: –Adducts Arm
Pectoralis Minor Origin: –Sternum Insertion: –Humerus Action: –Adducts Arm
Xiphi- humeralis (cat only) Origin: –Xiphoid Process Insertion: –Humerus Action: –Adducts Arm
Serratus Ventralis Origin: –First 10 Ribs Insertion: –Scapula Action: –Pulls Scapula Forward & Depresses Scapula
MUSCLES OF THE SHOULDER
(Deltoid) Clavodeltoid Origin: –Clavicle and Clavotrapezius muscle Insertion: –Humerus Action: –Flexes Forearm
(Deltoid) Acromio- deltoid Origin: –Scapula Insertion: –Humerus Action: –Flexes Humerus and Rotates it Outward
(Deltoid) Spinodeltoid Origin: –Scapula Insertion: –Humerus Action: –Flexes Humerus and Rotates it Outward
Supraspinatus Origin: –Scapula Insertion: –Humerus Action: –Extends Humerus
Infra- spinatus Origin: –Scapula Insertion: –Humerus Action: –Rotates Humerus Outward Teres major Rhomboideus major
Teres Major Origin: –Scapula Insertion: –Humerus Action: –Flexes forearm and Rotates it inward Rhomboideus major
Sub- Scapularis Origin: –Scapula Insertion: –Humerus Action: –Pulls Humerus Medially
MUSCLES OF UPPER ARM
Triceps Brachii Origin: –Long Head: ScapulaLateral Head and Medial Head: Humerus Insertion: –Ulna Action: –Extends Forearm Lateral head Medial head Long head
Biceps Brachii Origin: –Scapula Insertion: –Radius Action: –Flexes and Supinates Forearm
Brachialis Origin: –Humerus Insertion: –Ulna Action: –Flexes Forearm
MUSCLES OF THE TRUNK Thoracic Region
External Intercostals Origin: –Caudal border of one rib Insertion: –Crainal border of rib caudad Action: –Raises Rib (Inhalation) Origin: –Cranial border of one rib Insertion: –Caudal border of rib above Action: –Draw Adjacent Ribs Together and Lower Rib Internal Intercostals
Extenal Abdominal Oblique Origin: –Last nine Ribs Insertion: –Linea Alba from Sternum to Pubis Action: –Compresses Abdomen
Transversus Abdominis Origin: –Costal cartilage of False Ribs, Lumbar Vertabrae, and Ilium Insertion: –Linea Alba Action: –Compresses the Abdomen
Extensor dorsi communis Muscle Groups: –Spinalis –Longissimus –Iliocostalis Action: –Extends Vertebral Column
MUSCLES OF THE HIP REGION
Tensor fascia latae Origin: –Ilium Insertion: –Patella and Tibia Action: –Extends Thigh, Aids in Abduction and Rotation
Caudo- femoralis Origin: –2 and 3 Caudal Vertebrae Insertion: –Patella Action: –Abducts Thigh and Extends Shank
Gluteus Maximus Origin: –Sacral and Caudal Vertebrae Insertion: –Femur Action: –Abducts Thigh
Gluteus Medius Origin: –Sacral and Caudal Vertebrae & Ilium Insertion: –Femur Action: –Abducts Thigh
MUSCLES OF THE THIGH Dorsal Femoral Group (Flexors)
Biceps Femoris Origin: –Ishium Insertion: –Patella & Tibia Action: –Adducts Thigh, Flexes Shank
Semi- membranosus Origin: –Ischium Insertion: –Femur Action: –Extends Thigh
Semi- tendinosus Origin: –Ischium Insertion: –Tibia Action: –Flexes Shank
MUSCLES OF THE THIGH Ventral Femoral Group (Extensors)
Sartorius Origin: –Ilium Insertion: –Patella Action: –Adducts and Rotates Femur, Extends Tibia
Quadriceps Rectus femoris Origin: –Ilium Insertion: –Patella Action: –Extends Lower Leg
Quadriceps Vastus Lateralis Origin: –Femur Insertion: –Patella Action: –Extends Lower Leg
Quadriceps Vastus Medialis Origin: –Femur Insertion: –Patella Action: –Extends Lower Leg
MUSCLES OF THE THIGH Medial Femoral Group
Gracilis Origin: –Ischium and Pubis Insertion: –Tibia Action: –Adducts Thigh and Pulls Caudad
Adductor Longus Origin: –Pubis Insertion: –Femur Action: –Adducts Thigh
Adductor Femoris Origin: –Pubis & Ischium Insertion: –Femur Action: –Extends Thigh
MUSCLES OF THE LOWER LEG
Gastrocnemius Origin: –Femur Insertion: –Calcaneus Action: –Extends Foot
Soleus Origin: –Fibula Insertion: –Metatarsals Action: –Extends Foot
Tibialis Anterior Origin: –Tibia and Fibula Insertion: –First Metatarsals Action: –Flexes Foot
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