Presentation on theme: "Anterior Leg Muscles 7 June 20081Healing Hands Institute OAnterior Inferior Iliac Spine [A.I.I.S.]; Upper Margin of Acetabulum IPatella; Tibial tuberosity."— Presentation transcript:
Anterior Leg Muscles 7 June 20081Healing Hands Institute OAnterior Inferior Iliac Spine [A.I.I.S.]; Upper Margin of Acetabulum IPatella; Tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament; Sesamoid Bone AExtension of knee; Assists flexion of femur at hip NOnly quad muscle crossing both hip and knee joints; combined action in walking Rectus Femoris Key O = Origin I = Insertion A = Action N = Notes OLinea Aspera; Greater Trochanter IPatella; Tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament AExtension of knee NLateral surface of anterior thigh; lateral to rectus femoris in active knee extension Vastus Lateralis OAnterior & Lateral femur IPatella; Tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament AExtension of knee NDeepest quad; deep to rectus femoris; may try to palpate underneath by pushing rectus femoris medially in active knee extension Vastus Intermedius OLinea Aspera (posterior femur) IPatella; Tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament AExtension of knee NAnterior, medial surface of lower third of thigh, medial to rectus femoris in active knee extension; sartorius overlaps vastus medialis Vastus Medialis Quadriceps Femoris Group OLateral Condyle & Lateral shaft of tibia IBase of 1 st Metatarsal (plantar surface); First (medial) cuneiform (plantar surface) ADorsiflexion of Ankle; Inversion of Foot NArea of “shin splints”; Paralysis of this muscle causes “foot drop” Tibialis Anterior Muscles of the Shin OAnterior Shaft of fibula IBase of distal phalanx of great toe (Hallucis) AExtension of great toe; assists dorsiflexion of ankle NComparable to Extensor Pollicis Longus in the hand Ext. Hallucis Longus OLateral condyle of tibia; anterior shaft of fibula IMiddle and distal phalanges of 4 lateral toes AExtension of 4 lateral toes; assists dorsiflexion of ankle NComparable to Extensor Digitorum in the hand Ext. Digitor. Longus
Posterior Leg Muscles 7 June 20082Healing Hands Institute OIschial Tuberosity IHead of Fibula (inserts laterally at the knee) AFlexion of Knee; (to a lesser degree, Extension of Hip) NMost lateral of the hamstrings; “biceps” indicates “2 heads” Biceps Femoris Key O = Origin I = Insertion A = Action N = Notes OIschial Tuberosity IAnterior proximal tibial shaft (inserts medially at the knee, at “Pes Anserinus”) AFlexion of Knee; (to a lesser degree, Extension of Hip); Medial rotation of flexed knee NCentral hamstring; tendon is deep, and difficult to palpate Semitendinosus OIschial Tuberosity IPosterior medial tibial condyle AFlexion of Knee; (to a lesser degree, Extension of Hip); Medial rotation of flexed knee NMost medial of the hamstrings; adjacent to Gracilis Semimembranosus Hamstrings OMedial Head: medial epicondyle of femur Lateral Head: lateral epicondyle of femur ICalcaneus via Achilles Tendon APlantarflexion of ankle; assists flexion of knee N“Gastro” (Greek = belly); Can act on the knee or the ankle separately, but not simultaneously; raises heel during running & jumping Gastrocnemius Muscles of the Calf OSoleal line of tibia; posterior head & upper shaft of fibula ICalcaneus via Achilles Tendon APlantarflexion of ankle (stronger than gastroc.) N“Soleus” (Latin = sole, a flat fish); deep to gastrocnemius; together, gastroc and soleus are often referred to as the “Triceps Surae” Soleus OPosterior tibia & posterior fibula INavicular; adjacent tarsals & metatarsals on plantar surface of foot AInversion of foot; assists plantarflexion of ankle NBelly of muscle deep to Triceps Surae, cannot be palpated Tibialis Posterior Hamstrings Notes All three of the Hamstrings cross both the hip and knee joints from lateral to medial (BTM): Biceps Femoris SemiTendinosus SemiMembranosus An inability to touch your toes while keeping your knees extended is largely due to shortened hamstrings.
Muscles of the Gluteal Region 7 June 20083Healing Hands Institute OPosterior sacrum; Ilium; superior gluteal line of ilium IGluteal Tuberosity of femur; I.T. Tract AExtension of femur at hip; lateral rotation of extended hip N“Gluteus” (Greek = Rump); Maximus used mostly for power, as in climbing stairs, running, rising from sitting position Gluteus Maximus Key O = Origin I = Insertion A = Action N = Notes OIliac Crest IGreater Trochanter of Femur AAbduction NWhen standing on one foot, Medius contracts on that side to stabilize pelvis and prevent tilting to unsupported side; alternate contraction of these muscles occurs in walking Gluteus Medius OPosterior Ilium IAnterior surface of Greater Trochanter AAbduction NGluteus Minimus works with anterior portion of Gluteus Medius Gluteus Minimus Gluteals OAnterior sacrum IGreater Trochanter ALateral rotation of femur at hip N(Sciatic Nerve); attempt to palpate just posterior to greater trochanter during active lateral rotation of hip; difficult to differentiate from gluteus medius Piriformis Deep Lateral Hip Rotator OIliac Crest (posterior to A.S.I.S.) IIliotibial Tract (I.T. Band) AStabilizes knee; prevents collapse of extended knee during walking NBraces the knee while walking Tensor Fasciae Latae
Muscles of the Medial Thigh 7 June 20084Healing Hands Institute OAnterior Pubis ILinea Aspera AFlexion of femur at hip; assists adduction of femur at hip NUppermost of the medial thigh muscles; only adductor that flexes hip Pectineus Key O = Origin I = Insertion A = Action N = Notes OAnterior Pubis ILinea Aspera AAdduction of femur at hip; assists flexion of femur at hip; medial rotation of femur at hip NForms medial border of femoral triangle Adductor Longus OAnterior Pubis ILinea Aspera AAdduction of femur at hip; assists flexion of femur at hip; medial rotation of femur at hip NNot present in all individuals; if present, lies deep to adductor longus Adductor Brevis Adductors OAnterior Pubis IMedial proximal tibia (“Pes Anserinus”) AAdduction of femur at hip; assists flexion & medial rotation of flexed knee NMost superficial and medial of adductor group; only adductor that crosses the knee joint; Femur and Gracilis form the shape of the letter “V” Gracilis Muscle of Anterior Thigh OAnterior Superior Iliac Spine (A.S.I.S.) IUpper medial shaft of tibia (“Pes Anserinus”) AAssists flexion, abduction, lateral rotation of femur at hip; assists flexion, medial rotation of knee NLongest muscle in the body; most superficial thigh muscle; not an adductor Sartorius OInferior Pubic Ramus, Ischial tuberosity & ramus of ischium ILinea Aspera AAdduction of femur at hip; assists flexion & extension of femur at hip NLargest and deepest adductor Adductor Magnus PES ANSERINUS Three thigh muscles insert at the Superior (proximal) Medial Tibia forming the shape of a “duck foot”: Sartorius Gracilis Semitendinosus The initial letters of these muscles form the mnemonic expression “Silly Goose Steps”.
Muscles of the Lateral Lower Leg 7 June 20085Healing Hands Institute OHead & lateral shaft of fibula IBase of first metatarsal; 1 st (medial) cuneiform (plantar surface of foot) AEversion of foot; assists plantar flexion of ankle NTraverses the sole of the foot to meet the tibialis anterior tendon to form a stirrup for the foot (wraps under the foot); a.k.a. Fibularis Longus Peroneus Longus Key O = Origin I = Insertion A = Action N = Notes OLateral shaft of fibula IBase of 5 th metatarsal AEversion of foot; assists plantar flexion of ankle NHelps when walking or running on uneven surfaces; a.k.a. Fibularis Brevis Peroneus Brevis OAnterior distal fibula IBase of 5 th metatarsal AEversion of foot; assists dorsiflexion (lifts little toe) NFunctions to place the foot flat on the ground by raising its lateral border Peroneus Tertius Peroneals Peroneals Notes Peroneus = Greek for “fibula” These muscles would be involved in the case of a lateral ankle sprain. “Eversion” occurs when the foot is turned or rotated outward; i.e., while standing, lifting the lateral edges of the feet while ‘collapsing’ toward the inner arches.