2Medial Thigh Compartment Nerve: Obturator Nerve (adductor muscles)Pes Anserinus (the proximal anteriomedial tibia)The common insertion for three thigh musclesAnterior- SartoriousMedial- GracilisPosterior- Semitendinosus
3Gluteal Compartment/Posterior Thigh Compartment The gluteal group: ( Gluteas= greek for rump)1: Gluteus MaximusO: Post. Sacrum & Sup. Gluteal line of iliumI: Gluteal Tuberosity of femur; combines with tensor fasciae latae in Iliotibial band (which continues on to attach to lateral condyle of tibia)A: Ext. of hip ; lateral rot. Of hip
4Gluteal Group Gluteus Medius O: iliac crest; between sup. And middle gluteal lines.I: (lat. Surface) greater trochanter of femurA: abduction of femur at hipmedial rotation of femur at hip
5Gluteal group Gluteus Minimus O: post. Ilium, between middle and inf. Gluteal linesI: anterior surface of greater trochanterA: abduction of femur at hip jointmedial rotation of femur at hip
6Lateral Hip Muscles Abduction of the Hip Gluteus maximusGluteus mediusGluteus minimusTFLSartorius
7Lateral Thigh Tensor Fasciae Latae Tensor=one that stretches; fasciae=bands; latae=wideO: ASISI: iliotibial band (combines with gluteus maximus) which continues on to attach to the lateral condyle of the tibiaA: assists with abductionmedial rotation(flexion of femur at the hip joint)(assists with ext. of leg at knee)IT band helps stabilize knee during ambulation.
8Lateral/External Rotators of the Hip Biceps femorisGluteus maximusGluteus medius (post. fibers)SartoriusPiriformisGamellus superiorObtruator internusGamellus inferiorObtruator externusQuadratus FemorisPsoas majorIliacus
9Lateral Thigh Deep 6 lateral rotators (pg322) “Piriformis and the GOGO Q’s”Piriformis = means pear shapedO: ant. SacrumI: greater trochanter of femurA: lateral rotation of femur at hip joint
11Lateral Thigh Piriformis Syndrome: A condition in which the piriformis muscle tightens causing compression on the sciatic nerve, mimicking sciatica. This pain will be noticed along the posterior thigh region, and can radiate to the posterior knee.
12Hip Flexors Psoas Major and Iliacus (Iliopsoas) Psoas major and iliacus usually referred to as “iliopsoas” because of their common insertion and action.Deep abdominal muscle- known to butcher as “tenderloin” or “filet mignon”O: psoas-lumbar vertebrae T12-L5Iliacus- iliac fossaI: lessor trochanter of femurA: Flex. And Lat. Rot. Of femur at hip joint if thigh is fixed, flex. Of trunk at hip joint.
13Bones of the foot pg 83 Calcaneus Talus Navicular Cuboid Cuneiform I, II, IIIMetatarsals 1-5 (medial to lateral)Phalanges: proximal, middle, distal (great toe has no middle, only proximal and distal.Tarsals: calcaneus, talus, navicular, cuboid, cuneiform I,II,III
14Anterior Leg Muscles Dorsiflexion of the Foot Tibialis ant.Extensor digitorum longusExtensor hallicus longus
15Anterior Leg Muscles Tibialis anterior O: lateral shaft of tibia (lat. Condyle, interossous membrane)I: base of 1st metatarsal (plantar surface)base of 1st cuneiform (plantar surface)A: dorsiflexion of foot at ankle jointinversion (of foot at tarsal joints)
16Ant. Leg muscles Extensor digitorum longus O: lat. Condyle of tibia, proximal ant. Shaft of fibulaI: middle and distal phalanges of 4 lat. Toes(front of leg to phalanges)A: ext. of 4 lat. Toesassists dorsiflexion of ankle
17Ant. Leg muscles Extensor hallucis longus O: middle ant. Shaft of fibula, interosseous membraneI: base of distal phalanx of great toe(front of leg to great toe)A: ext. of great toeassists dorsiflexion of ankle
18Ant. Leg muscles Peroneus Tertius O: ant. Distal fibula (with extensor Digitorum longus)I: base of 5th metatarsalA: eversion of footassists dorsiflexion
19Lateral Leg Muscles Eversion of the Foot Peroneus longusPeroneus brevisExtensor digitorum longus
20Lateral leg muscles Peroneus Longus O: head of proximal lateral shaft of fibulaI: base of 1st metatarsal (lat. Side); plantar surface of 1st cuneiformA: eversion of foot at tarsal jointsassists plantar flexion of anklePeroneus longus and Tibialis anterior meet up at insertion points– forms a stirrup for the foot.
21Lat. Leg muscles Peroneus Brevis O: lat. Shaft of fibula (distal 2/3) I: base of 5th metatarsalA: eversion of footassists plantar flexion of ankle
22Posterior Leg Muscles Plantarflexion of the Foot GastroncnemiusSoleusTibialis post.Peroneus longus (assists)Peroneus brevis (assists)Flexor digitorum longusFlexor hallicus longusPlantaris
23Posterior Leg Muscles Gastrocnemius O: med. And lat. Condyles of femur I: calcaneus via achilles tendonA: plantar flexion of foot at ankle jointCan act on knee or ankle, but not simultaneously
24Post. Leg muscles Soleus Soleus is latin for sole, a flat fish…it’s a flat broad muscle.O: soleal line of tibia, post. Head and upper shaft of fibulaI: calcaneus via achilles tendonA: plantar flexion of foot at ankle jointSoleus is the strongest plantar flexor
25Post. Leg musclesGastronemius and soleus together form the “triceps surae”PlantarisO: lateral epicondyle of femurI: calcaneus via achilles tendonA: assists plantar flexion of foot at ankle
26Post. Leg muscles Popliteus Initiates knee flexion by medial rotation of tibia to “unlock” the extended knee“the key that unlocks the knee”Tibialis PosteriorO: post. Tibia, post. Fibula, interosseous membran.I: navicular and adjacent metatarsals on plantar surface (back of leg to navicular & metatarsals)A: inversion of footassists plantarflexion of ankle
27Post. Leg muscles Flexor Digitorum longus O: post. Tibia I: distal phalanges of 4 lat. Toes on plantar surface (back of leg to 4 lat. Toes)A: flexion of 4 lat. Toesassists plantar flexion of ankle
28Post. Leg muscles Flexor Hallucis longus O: post. Fibula I: distal phalanx of great toe (plantar surface)(back of leg to great toe)A: flexion of great toe, assists plantarflexion of ankle
29Post. Leg muscles “Tom, Dick and Harry” Tibialis posterior Flexor Digitorum longusFlexor Hallucis longusdeep post. Calf muscles whose tendons go around medial malleolus in this order of ant. Superficial to post. Deep.