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CHAPTER 9 KNEE INJURIES. 4 bones in the tibiofemoral joint  Tibia  Femur  Fibula  Patella BONES OF THE KNEE.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 9 KNEE INJURIES. 4 bones in the tibiofemoral joint  Tibia  Femur  Fibula  Patella BONES OF THE KNEE."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 9 KNEE INJURIES

2 4 bones in the tibiofemoral joint  Tibia  Femur  Fibula  Patella BONES OF THE KNEE

3 “Shin” bone Major weight bearing bone in the body. Named after a Greek aulos flute Parts to know: Medial Condyle Medial Tibial Plateau Lateral Condyle Lateral Tibial Plateau Intercondylar Eminence Tibial Tuberosity Gerdy’s Tubercle Shaft of the Tibia Anterior Crest Medial Malleolus Fibular Notch TIBIA Anterior ViewPosterior View

4 “Thigh” bone Strongest bone in the body. Longest bone in the body. Parts to know: Greater Trochanter Head of the Femur Neck of the Femur Lesser Trochanter Shaft of the Femur Linea Aspera Lateral Condyle of the Femur Lateral Epicondyle of the Femur Medial Condyle of the Femur Medial Epicondyle of the Femur Patellar Surface Popliteal Surface Intercondylar Fossa FEMUR Anterior view Posterior view

5 Largest sesamoid bone in the body. Enclosed in quadriceps femoris tendon. Illustration is of the right patella Parts to know: Base Apex Medial Facet Lateral Facet PATELLA

6 Ligaments of the Knee Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL) Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) Lateral Collateral Ligament (LCL) Meniscus of the Knee Medial Meniscus Lateral Meniscus LIGAMENTS AND CARTILAGE OF THE KNEE

7 Flexion Extension Medial Rotation Lateral Rotation RANGE OF MOTION

8 Rectus Femoris Origin Anterior Inferior Iliac Spine (AIIS) Insertion Tibial Tuberosity via the patellar tendon Action Extend the knee Flex the hip MUSCLES OF THE KNEE

9 Vastus Lateralis Origin Lateral lip of linea aspera, gluteal tuberosity, and greater trochanter. Insertion Tibial Tuberosity via the patellar tendon. Action Extend the knee. MUSCLES OF THE KNEE

10 Vastus Intermedius Origin Anterior and lateral shaft of the femur. Insertion Tibial Tuberosity via the patellar tendon. Action Extend the knee. MUSCLES OF THE KNEE

11 Vastus Medialis Origin Medial lip of the linea aspera. Insertion Tibial tuberosity via the patellar tendon. Action Extend the knee. MUSCLES OF THE KNEE

12 Semimembranosus Origin Ischial tuberosity. Insertion Posterior aspect of medial condyle of tibia. Action Flex the knee Medially rotate the flexed knee Extend the hip Assist in medially rotating the hip Tilt the pelvis posteriorly MUSCLES OF THE KNEE

13 Semitendinosus Origin Ischial tuberosity. Insertion Proximal, medial shaft of the tibia at pes anserinus. Action Flex the knee Medially rotate the flexed knee Extend the hip Assist to medially rotate the hip Tilt the pelvis posteriorly MUSCLES OF THE KNEE

14 Biceps Femoris Origin Long head: Ischial tuberosity. Short head: Lateral lip of the linea aspera. Insertion Head of the fibula. Action Flex the knee Laterally rotate the flexed knee Long head: extend the hip Long head: Assist to laterally rotate the hip Tilt the pelvis posteriorly MUSCLES OF THE KNEE

15 Sartorius Origin Anterior Superior Iliac Spine (ASIS) Insertion Proximal, medial shaft of the tibia at the pes anserinus Action Flex the hip Laterally rotate the hip Abduct the hip Flex the knee Medially rotate the flexed knee MUSCLES OF THE KNEE

16 Sartorius (posterior view) MUSCLES OF THE KNEE

17 Gracilis Origin Inferior ramus of the pubis Insertion Proximal, medial shaft of the tibia at pes anserinus Action Adduct hip Medially rotate hip Flex the knee Medially rotate the flexed knee MUSCLES OF THE KNEE

18 Popliteus Origin Lateral condyle of the femur Insertion Proximal, posterior aspect of the tibia Action Medially rotate the flexed knee Flex the knee MUSCLES OF THE KNEE

19 Gastrocnemius Origin Condyles of the femur, posterior surfaces Insertion Calcaneus via the Achilles tendon Action Flex the knee Plantar flex the ankle MUSCLES OF THE KNEE

20 Plantaris Origin Lateral supracondylar line of the femur. Insertion Calcaneus via the Achilles tendon Action Plantar flexion of the ankle Flexion of the knee MUSCLES OF THE KNEE

21 Tensor Fascia Latae and the Iliotibial Band Origin Iliac crest, posterior to the ASIS Insertion Iliotibial tract (which then inserts on the tibial tubercle on the lateral aspect of the proximal tibia) Action Flex the hip Medially rotate the hip Abduct the hip MUSCLES OF THE KNEE

22 Valgus Test Varus Test Anterior Drawer Lachman’s Test Posterior Drawer Test Godfrey’s Test/Posterior Sag Test McMurray’s Test Apley’s Compression Test Apley’s Distraction Test Patellar Apprehension Test Patellar Grind Test/Clarke’s Sign ASSESSMENT TESTS

23 Ligament Sprain MCL LCL ACL PCL Jumper’s Knee Osgood-Schlatter Disorder Quadriceps Strain Hamstrings Strain Patellar Subluxation/Dislocation Chondromalacia patella Meniscal Injuries Bursitis Iliotibial Band Friction Syndrome Osteochondritis Dissecans KNEE INJURIES & CONDITIONS

24 Etiology MCL Injury Pathology Treatment MEDIAL COLLATERAL LIGAMENT SPRAIN

25 Etiology LCL Injury Pathology Treatment LATERAL COLLATERAL LIGAMENT SPRAIN

26 Etiology ACL Injury Pathology Treatment ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT SPRAIN

27 Etiology PCL Injury Pathology Treatment POSTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT SPRAIN

28 Etiology Pathology Treatment JUMPER’S KNEE (PATELLAR TENDINITIS)

29 Etiology Patella Tendon Rupture Injury Pathology Treatment PATELLA TENDON RUPTURE

30 Etiology Pathology Treatment OSGOOD-SCHLATTER DISEASE/SHINDING-LARSEN- JOHANSSON DISEASE

31 Etiology Quad injury Pathology Treatment QUADRICEPS STRAIN

32 Etiology Hamstring Injury Pathology Treatment HAMSTRINGS STRAIN

33 Etiology Patellar Dislocation Pathology Treatment Patellar Reduction PATELLAR SUBLUXATION/DISLOCATION

34 Etiology Pathology Treatment CHONDROMALACIA PATELLA

35 Etiology Pathology Treatment MENISCAL INJURIES

36 Etiology Pathology Treatment BURSITIS

37 Etiology Ober’s Test Pathology Treatment RUNNER’S KNEE – ILIOTIBIAL BAND FRICTION SYNDROME

38 Etiology Pathology Treatment OSTEOCHONDRITIS DISSECANS

39 FOR YOUR QUIZ Students should be able to: Label the parts of the bones for the knee joint including the femur, tibia, patella and fibula. Label the muscles that are involved with the knee joint. Label the ligament and meniscal structures of the knee. Identify the different knee assessment tests and what they are used for. Identify the different knee injuries and conditions and be able to define them. Identify the different bones and their respective parts on the models of the bones.


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