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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Muscles Crossing Hip and Knee Joints Include flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction, and rotation.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Muscles Crossing Hip and Knee Joints Include flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction, and rotation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Muscles Crossing Hip and Knee Joints Include flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction, and rotation Most anterior muscles flex the femur at the hip and extend the leg at the knee (foreswing of walking) Most posterior muscles extend the thigh and flex the leg (backswing of walking) Medial muscles all adduct the thigh

2 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10.19a Psoas minor Iliac crest Psoas major Iliopsoas 12th rib Quadratus lumborum Iliacus Anterior superior iliac spine Tensor fasciae latae Pectineus Sartorius Quadriceps femoris Rectus femoris Vastus lateralis Vastus medialis (a) Adductor magnus Patella Patellar ligament Tendon of quadriceps femoris 12th thoracic vertebra 5th lumbar vertebra Adductor longus Gracilis

3 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Movements of the Thigh Thigh extensors Hamstring muscles (prime movers of extension) Biceps femoris Semitendinosus Semimembranosus Gluteus maximus (prime mover during forceful extension)

4 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10.20a Gluteus medius Gluteus maximus Adductor magnus Gracilis Iliotibial tract Long head Semitendinosus Semimembranosus Short head Biceps femoris Hamstrings (a)

5 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Movements of the Thigh Adductors (also medially rotate thigh) Adductor magnus Adductor longus Adductor brevis Gracilis

6 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10.19b (b) O = origin I = insertion Adductor magnus Pectineus (cut) Adductor brevis Adductor longus Femur

7 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Movements of the Thigh Abductors Gluteus maximus (also laterally rotates thigh) Gluteus medius (also medially rotates thigh) Gluteus minimus (also medially rotates thigh)

8 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10.20c Superior gemellus Obturator internus Inferior gemellus Gluteus medius (cut) Gluteus minimus Piriformis Obturator externus Quadratus femoris Gluteus maximus (cut) (c)

9 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Muscles of the Thigh that Move the Knee Joint Quadriceps femoris—sole extensor of the knee Hamstring muscles—flex the knee, and are antagonists to the quadriceps femoris

10 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10.19a Psoas minor Iliac crest Psoas major Iliopsoas 12th rib Quadratus lumborum Iliacus Anterior superior iliac spine Tensor fasciae latae Pectineus Sartorius Quadriceps femoris Rectus femoris Vastus lateralis Vastus medialis (a) Adductor magnus Patella Patellar ligament Tendon of quadriceps femoris 12th thoracic vertebra 5th lumbar vertebra Adductor longus Gracilis

11 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10.20a Gluteus medius Gluteus maximus Adductor magnus Gracilis Iliotibial tract Long head Semitendinosus Semimembranosus Short head Biceps femoris Hamstrings (a)

12 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Muscles of the Leg: Movements Various leg muscles produce the following movements Ankle—dorsiflexion and plantar flexion Intertarsal joints—inversion and eversion of the foot Toes—flexion and extension

13 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Muscles of the Anterior Compartment of the Leg Primary toe extensors and ankle dorsiflexors Tibialis anterior Extensor digitorum longus

14 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10.21a Fibularis longus Gastrocnemius Tibia Tibialis anterior Extensor digitorum longus Soleus Extensor hallucis longus Fibularis tertius Extensor hallucis brevis Extensor digitorum brevis Superior and inferior extensor retinacula (a)

15 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10.22a Patella Head of fibula Gastrocnemius Soleus Fibularis longus Extensor digitorum longus Tibialis anterior Extensor hallucis longus Fibularis tertius Fibularis brevis Flexor hallucis longus Fibular retinaculum Lateral malleolus Superior and inferior extensor retinacula Extensor digitorum brevis 5th metatarsal Extensor hallucis brevis (a)

16 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Muscles of the Posterior Compartment of the Leg Flexors of the foot and the toes Gastrocnemius Soleus

17 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10.23a Gastrocnemius Plantaris Medial head Lateral head Tendon of gastrocnemius Calcaneal tendon Medial malleolus Lateral malleolus Calcaneus (a) Superficial view of the posterior leg.

18 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10.25a Posterior compartment of thigh (flexes leg and extends thigh); innervation: tibial nerve (portion of sciatic nerve) Medial compartment (adducts thigh); innervation: obturator nerve Anterior compartment (extends leg); innervated by femoral nerve Vastus intermedius Rectus femoris Vastus medialis (a) Muscles of the thigh Posterior compartment muscles Anterior compartment muscle Medial compartment muscles of thigh and lateral compartment muscles of leg Adductors Vastus lateralis Hamstrings Femur (a)

19 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10.25b Posterior compartment of leg (plantar flexes foot, flexes toes); innervated by tibial nerve Anterior compartment of leg (dorsiflexes foot, extends toes); innervated by deep fibular nerve Lateral compartment of leg (plantar flexes and everts foot); innervation: superficial fibular nerve Triceps surae Fibula Tibialis anterior Tibia Fibularis muscles (b) Muscles of the leg (b) Posterior compartment muscles Anterior compartment muscle Medial compartment muscles of thigh and lateral compartment muscles of leg

20 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10.21a Fibularis longus Gastrocnemius Tibia Tibialis anterior Extensor digitorum longus Soleus Extensor hallucis longus Fibularis tertius Extensor hallucis brevis Extensor digitorum brevis Superior and inferior extensor retinacula (a)

21 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Question: Which kite shaped muscle pair stabilizes, raises, retracts, and rotates the scapula? Answer: Trapesius

22 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Name the fascicle pattern represented by letter (d) Which letter would represent a fusiform fascicle pattern? Which fascicle patter is represented by letter (b)? Which fascicle pattern is represented by letter (e)?

23 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Which of these levers is a speed lever? Which of these levers is at a mechanical disadvantage? Explain the relationship between the load, fulcrum and effort when classifying a lever as a mechanical advantage compared to a disadvantage.

24 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. What class lever is this an example of? Explain.

25 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. What class lever would this be an example of? Explain.

26 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Point to platysma Point to and name the muscle that is the antagonist to depressor labii inferioris Identify and name the prime mover for chewing Point to and name the muscle used for whistling and nursing infants Identify and name the muscle that is a synergist for jaw closure/chewing

27 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Locate the linea alba Locate serratus anterior Name and locate the prime mover for spinal flexion Locate the transverse abdominals

28 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Locate and identify the muscle in this image that is part of the rotator cuff Locate pectoralis major Locate and identify the muscles inferior to pectoralis minor Locate and identify the muscle responsible for flexion and lateral rotation of the neck Locate and identify the prime mover for arm abdcuction

29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Locate and identify the muscle responsible for arm adduction Locate teres minor Locate rhomboid major Locate trapezious

30 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Locate gracillis Locate sartorious Which group of muscles does gracilis fit into Locate vastus lateralis List the muscles included in the quadricep group and give the main function Which muscle of the quadricep group is not visible in this image?

31 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

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