Presentation on theme: "Muscles Crossing Hip and Knee Joints"— Presentation transcript:
1Muscles Crossing Hip and Knee Joints Include flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction, and rotationMost anterior muscles flex the femur at the hip and extend the leg at the knee (foreswing of walking)Most posterior muscles extend the thigh and flex the leg (backswing of walking)Medial muscles all adduct the thigh
3Hamstring muscles (prime movers of extension) Movements of the ThighThigh extensorsHamstring muscles (prime movers of extension)Biceps femorisSemitendinosusSemimembranosusGluteus maximus (prime mover during forceful extension)
4Gluteus medius Gluteus maximus Adductor magnus Gracilis Iliotibial tractLong headBicepsfemorisShort headHamstringsSemitendinosusSemimembranosus(a)Figure 10.20a
5Adductors (also medially rotate thigh) Movements of the ThighAdductors (also medially rotate thigh)Adductor magnusAdductor longusAdductor brevisGracilis
6Pectineus (cut) Adductor brevis Adductor magnus Adductor longus Femur O = originI = insertion(b)Figure 10.19b
7Movements of the Thigh Abductors Gluteus maximus (also laterally rotates thigh)Gluteus medius (also medially rotates thigh)Gluteus minimus (also medially rotates thigh)
8Gluteus medius (cut) Gluteus minimus Superior gemellus Piriformis ObturatorinternusObturatorexternusInferiorgemellusQuadratusfemorisGluteusmaximus(cut)(c)Figure 10.20c
9Muscles of the Thigh that Move the Knee Joint Quadriceps femoris—sole extensor of the kneeHamstring muscles—flex the knee, and are antagonists to the quadriceps femoris
16Muscles of the Posterior Compartment of the Leg Flexors of the foot and the toesGastrocnemiusSoleus
17(a) Superficial view of the posterior leg. PlantarisMedial headGastrocnemiusLateral headTendon ofgastrocnemiusCalcaneal tendonMedial malleolusLateral malleolusCalcaneus(a) Superficial view of the posterior leg.Figure 10.23a
18Posterior compartment of thigh (flexes leg and extends AdductorsHamstringsVastuslateralisFemurPosterior compartment ofthigh (flexes leg and extendsthigh); innervation: tibialnerve (portion of sciatic nerve)VastusintermediusRectus femoris(a)Vastus medialisPosteriorcompartmentmusclesAnteriorcompartmentmuscleMedialcompartmentmuscles of thighand lateralmuscles of legMedial compartment (adductsthigh); innervation: obturatornerveAnterior compartment (extends leg);innervated by femoral nerve(a) Muscles of the thighFigure 10.25a
19Posterior compartment of leg (plantar flexes foot, musclesTriceps suraeAnteriorcompartmentmuscleFibulaMedialcompartmentmuscles of thighand lateralmuscles of legFibularismusclesPosterior compartmentof leg (plantar flexes foot,flexes toes); innervatedby tibial nerve(b)TibialisanteriorTibiaLateral compartment of leg(plantar flexes and everts foot);innervation: superficialfibular nerveAnterior compartment of leg(dorsiflexes foot, extends toes);innervated by deep fibular nerve(b) Muscles of the legFigure 10.25b
21Question: Which kite shaped muscle pair stabilizes, raises, retracts, and rotates the scapula? Answer: Trapesius
22Which fascicle patter is represented by letter (b)? Which fascicle pattern is represented by letter (e)?Name the fascicle pattern represented by letter (d)Which letter would represent a fusiform fascicle pattern?
23Which of these levers is a speed lever? Which of these levers is at a mechanical disadvantage?Explain the relationship between the load, fulcrum and effort when classifying a lever as a mechanical advantage compared to a disadvantage.
24What class lever is this an example of? Explain.
25What class lever would this be an example of? Explain.
26Point to platysmaPoint to and name the muscle that is the antagonist to depressor labii inferiorisIdentify and name the prime mover for chewingPoint to and name the muscle used for whistling and nursing infantsIdentify and name the muscle that is a synergist for jaw closure/chewing
27Locate the linea albaLocate serratus anteriorName and locate the prime mover for spinal flexionLocate the transverse abdominals
28Locate and identify the muscle in this image that is part of the rotator cuff Locate pectoralis majorLocate and identify the muscles inferior to pectoralis minorLocate and identify the muscle responsible for flexion and lateral rotation of the neckLocate and identify the prime mover for arm abdcuction
29Locate and identify the muscle responsible for arm adduction Locate teres minorLocate rhomboid majorLocate trapezious
30Locate gracillisLocate sartoriousWhich group of muscles does gracilis fit intoLocate vastus lateralisList the muscles included in the quadricep group and give the main functionWhich muscle of the quadricep group is not visible in this image?