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THE HIP JOINT Muscles of the Hip Gluteus Maximus O: lower posterior iliac crest and posterior surface of the sacrum I: gluteal tuberosity (upper, posterior.

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Presentation on theme: "THE HIP JOINT Muscles of the Hip Gluteus Maximus O: lower posterior iliac crest and posterior surface of the sacrum I: gluteal tuberosity (upper, posterior."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 THE HIP JOINT

3 Muscles of the Hip

4 Gluteus Maximus O: lower posterior iliac crest and posterior surface of the sacrum I: gluteal tuberosity (upper, posterior aspect of the femur) & I.T. band Actions: Extension of the hip External rotation of the hip Lower fibers (below the center of motion) assist in adduction

5 Extension

6 Gluteus Maximus Produces hip extension beyond 15 degrees; not used extensively during walking Strongly used during running, hopping, skipping, and jumping Best isolated with the knee flexed to reduce hip extension from the hamstrings 40 degrees

7 Gluteus Medius O: outer surface of the ilium just below the crest I: greater trochanter Actions: Abduction of the hip Anterior fibers: Internal rotation, Posterior fibers: External rotation.

8 Gluteus Minimus O: outer surface of the ilium beneath the gluteus medius I: greater trochanter of the femur Actions Abduction of the hip Internal rotation

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11 Gluteus Medius and Minimus During walking these muscles abduct (or hold up) the free leg, preventing it from sagging. Both are important in transferring weight from one leg to the other (e.g. running, hopping, skipping, etc.) Their effectiveness decreases with age.

12 Biceps Femoris Lateral side Origin: 1.) Long head - ischial tuberosity; 2.) Short head - lower half of the linea aspera Insertion: Head of the fibula Action: Extension of hip External rotation of the hip (and knee) (Flexion of knee)

13 Biceps Femoris One of the hamstring muscles (semitendinosus and semimembranosus) A two-joint muscle which is a powerful hip extensor unless the knees are flexed Isolated during leg curls with some external rotation of the hip and knee. This “lines up” the origin and insertion.

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15 Semitendinosus Medial side; superficial Origin: Ischial tuberosity Insertion: Medial surface of proximal end of the tibia Action: Extension of the hip Internal rotation of the hip (and knee) Flexion of the knee

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17 Semimembranosus Medial side, deeper than semitendonosus Origin: Ischial tuberosity Insertion: Medial surface of the tibia Action: Extension of the hip Internal rotation of the hip (and knee) Flexion of the knee

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19 Semitendinosus & Semimembranosus Two-joint muscles Used in ordinary walking for hip extension Best exercised with knee flexion exercises (leg curls) with the hip and knee internally rotated Help to medially stabilize knee

20 Tensor Fasciae Latae O: iliac crest I: iliotibial (I.T.) band Actions: Flexion of the hip Internal rotation Abduction of the hip

21 Tensor Fasciae Latae Prevents external rotation at the hip is flexed Strengthening Stretching

22 Tensor Fascia Latae (Anterior View)

23 Iliopsoas Origins: iliac fossa vertebral bodies of the last thorasic and lumbar vertebrae I: lesser trochanter of the femur Actions: Flexion of the hip External rotation

24 Iliopsoas Strong hip flexor muscle Raises legs off the floor from the supine position. Pulls anteriorly on the lower lumbar vertebrae May aggravate lower back problems Abdominal muscles can prevent lumbar strain Used during complete sit- ups and straight leg sit-ups. Stretching this muscle requires hyper-extension of the hip.

25 Pectineous O: pubic crest or ramus I: below the linea aspera Actions Flexion Adduction Internal rotation

26 Tensor Fasciae Latae Pectineus

27 Adductor Brevis Origin: Inferior ramus of pubis Insertion: Pectineal line (linea aspera) Actions: Adduction External rotation

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29 Adductor Longus Below the adductor brevis O: front of the pubis just below its crest I: middle third of the linea aspera Actions: Adduction Flexion

30 Adductor Magnus Located posterior to the longus O: edge of the pubic crest and ischial tuberosity I: linea aspera Actions: Adduction External rotation

31 Gracilis O: pubic crest I: medial condyle of tibia Actions: Adduction at the hip Internal rotation [Flexion at the knee]

32 Adductor Muscles Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Adductor Magnus Gracilis Not heavily used in ordinary movements Horse back riding, the breaststroke kick in swimming

33 Sartorius Origin: Anterior-superior spine of the ilium Insertion: Anterior medial condyle of the tibia (behind the medial condyle) Action: Flexion of hip External rotation of the hip [Flexion of the knee]

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35 Sartorius Longest muscle in the body It is a two-joint muscle; hip flexion and knee flexion It is weak when both actions take place at the same time.

36 Rectus Femoris Two joint muscle; most superficial Origin: anterior-inferior iliac spine of the ilium Insertion: top of the patella and patellar ligament to the tibial tuberosity Actions: Flexion of the hip [Extension of the knee]

37 Rectus Femoris A two-joint muscle: hip flexion and knee extension Powerful knee extension when the hip is extended but weaker when the hip is flexed. The gluteus maximus and the hamstring muscles will extend the hip making the rectus femoris stronger during knee extension

38 Hip Rotator Muscles ANTERIOR Obturator Externus Anterior

39 Hip Rotator Muscles POSTERIOR Piriformis Gemellus superior Obturator internus Gemellus inferior Quadratus femoris Posterior

40 Hip Rotator Muscles Posterior

41 Hip Rotator Muscles PosteriorAnterior

42 Six Hip Rotator Muscles Common action is External Rotation Powerful external rotation of the hip is required to throw a baseball, swing a bat or golf club. The sciatic nerve passes just inferior to the piriformis therefore a tight piriformis muscle my contribute to compression on the sciatic nerve.

43 Review

44 Name the action at her hip Abduction

45 Name the action at his right hip Flexion

46 Name the actions at her hip Extension, Abduction & External Rotation

47 Name the two action at his right hip Extension and External Rotation

48 Name the action at his hip Flexion

49 Name the actions at his hip Flexion and External Rotation and Abduction

50 Name the actions at his hip Flexion and Adduction

51 The Femur 1 = 2 = 3 = 4 = 5 = 6 = 7 = Head Neck Greater trochanter Lesser trochanter Linea Aspera Medial condyle Lateral condyle

52 Anterior 1 = 2 = 3 = 4 = 5 = 6 = iliac crest anterior spine greater trochanter lesser trochanter ischial tuberosity pubis crest

53 Name the sections of the pelvis Ilium Pubis Ischium

54 Posterior 1 = 2 = 3 = 4 = 5 = iliac crest greater trochanter ischial tuberosity lesser trochanter linea aspera

55 Actions: extension of the thigh at the hip lateral rotation of the thigh lower fibers (below the center of motion) assist adduction upper fibers (above the center of motion) assist in abduction Gluteus Maximus Name the muscle

56 Actions adduction of the thigh at the hip aids in flexion Adductor Brevis Name the muscle

57 Actions abduction of the thigh medial rotation flexion Gluteus Minimus Name the muscle

58 Actions: adduction of the thigh assists in flexion of the thigh at the hip Adductor Longus Name the muscle

59 Actions: abduction of the thigh anterior fibers: flexion and medial rotation, posterior fibers: extension and lateral rotation. Gluetus Medius Name the muscle

60 Actions: adduction at the hip medial rotation [flexion at the knee] Gracilis Name the muscle

61 Actions: flexion of the thigh at the hip slight adduction flexion of the spine Iliopsoas Name the muscle

62 Actions flexion of the hip adduction Pectineus Name the muscle

63 Actions: flexion of the thigh at the hip medial rotation abduction of the thigh, medial rotation (weak) Tensor Fasciae Latae Name the muscle

64 Actions: adduction of the thigh at the hip flexion (anterior fibers) extension (posterior fibers) Adductor Magnus Name the muscle

65 What is the most anterior hip rotator muscle? Obturator Externus

66 What is the common action of these muscles? Piriformis Gemellus superior Obturator internus Gemellus inferior Quadratus femoris External Rotation

67 Name the muscle Deep muscle Action: Extension of the hip Flexion of the knee Internal rotation of the hip (and knee) Semimembranosus

68 Name the muscle Superficial muscle Action: Extension of the hip Flexion of the knee Internal rotation of the hip (and knee) Semitendonosis

69 Name the muscle Sartorius Action: Flexion of hip External rotation of the hip [Flexion of the knee]

70 Name the muscle Actions: Flexion of the hip [Extension of the knee] Rectus Femoris

71 Name the muscle Action: Extension of hip Flexion of knee Lateral rotation of the hip (and knee) Biceps Femoris

72 Name the muscle Gluteus Medius

73 Name the muscles Pectineus Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Adductor Magnus Gracilis

74 Name the landmarks Iliac crest Anterior spine

75 Name the landmarks 1. Acetabulum 2. Sciatic notch 3. Ischial tuberosity 1 2 3

76 Name the muscles 1. Tensor fasciae latae 2. Sartorius 2 1

77 1. Name the muscle 2. Name the landmark 3. Name the structure Gluteus Maximus Iliac Crest Iliotibial band


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