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Christianity Appeal to Jews: *Jesus is the long awaited Messiah * Jesus would lead to freedom from oppression * Salvation Appeal to Gentiles: *old religion.

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Presentation on theme: "Christianity Appeal to Jews: *Jesus is the long awaited Messiah * Jesus would lead to freedom from oppression * Salvation Appeal to Gentiles: *old religion."— Presentation transcript:


2 Christianity Appeal to Jews: *Jesus is the long awaited Messiah * Jesus would lead to freedom from oppression * Salvation Appeal to Gentiles: *old religion too many gods and goddesses interfering with human life *even emperors were gods * many became cynics * Jesus, human face of God, Good News of God’s love for all, solid teaching “love one another” * some one to Believe in, * eternal salvation offered to All

3 Break from Judiasm Reasons: * Circumcision * dietary laws * persecution of the followers of Jesus by the Sanhedrin, * execution of James the bishop of Jerusalem, * 66CE Jews revolt against Rome and Rome retaliates

4 Changes from 100CE to 400CE Constantine’s legalizing of Christianity (positive)*brought an end to persecutions * allowed Christians to enter the main stream of society * exempted Christian clergy from taxes * allowed for many Churches to be built (negative) *the government interfered in the administration of the Church * Christians were called upon to serve in the military after years of a pacifist position * Christianity was viewed as aligned with Roman Rule * wealth, property and power accrued

5 Early Challenges Early Heresies: * Gnosticism – denial of Jesus’ humanity – Apostles Creed * Arianism – denial of Jesus’ Divinity – Council of Nicaea and the Nicene Creed Benefits: *Refining Doctrine * surmounting challenges

6 Heroes of the Church Paul of Tarsus d.64CE*convert to Jesus *apostle to the Gentiles *leader of the early church *contributor to the Christian Scriptures * helped spread the ‘Good News’ throughout first century world *conducted 3 large missionary journeys Patrick of Ireland 389-461 * kidnapped into slavery in Ireland *escaped returned home studied for the priesthood * responded to God’s call to convert the Irish *incorporated the culture and customs of the Irish in his converting process (Irish Cross) * built Monasteries as ‘headquarters’ for the Church throughout Ireland centers of learning and faith

7 Brigid of Kildare 453 *born leader *Christian woman determined to give her life to God * built monasteries for women * built a unique Male and Female Monastery in Kildare * thriving center of artisanship and learning Dominic Guzman1170-1221 *founder of the Order of Preachers (Dominicans) *in response to the Albigensian Heresy * mendicant = beggar, the Friars moved from place to place preaching and teaching, living simply, depending on what they were given

8 Francis of Assisi 1181-1226 *founded the Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans) *dedicated to owning nothing and total dependence and trust in God as well as rebuilding the Church *also a mendicant order Catherine of Siena, Doctor of the Church, mystic (1347-1380), convinced Pope GregoryXI to return to Rome from Avignon in France, served the poor of Siena, mediated disputes between city-states

9 Indulgences John Tetzel Misunderstanding about the meaning of indulgences –Claimed that indulgences granted salvation Luther believed that somewhere people had confused and forgotten the message of Jesus

10 Extravagant Lifestyle of Church Leaders Church leaders were secular leaders too –A bishop who was a “prince of the Church” was also a prince in the real world –They would live like any other prince would Pope sometimes put his secular rule above the spiritual welfare of the church

11 Buying and Selling Church Offices Wealthy families controlled the church Church leaders had no training


13 Luther 1483-1546 Wittenberg, Germany Bible Scholar Catholic Monk Protestant Reformation in 1517 95 Theses –Statements about sin and its forgiveness, the meaning of indulgences, and the popes power to grant

14 1. On Papal Authority Pope had power but only given by humans 2. On Grace vs. Works People are saved solely by grace of God 3. The Bible is the sole supreme authority

15 Luther Excommunicated 1520 Hung the notice in towns Luther refused to recant—heretic Duke Fredrick “kidnapped” Translated Bible to German 10 months later returned to Wittenberg

16 Rulers Choose Religion for Region Catholics were given right to practice everywhere Lutherans were restricted Protested— Protestants 1555 Peace of Augsburg –Local ruler can choose religion –Choose based on political reasons

17 Calvinism John Calvin- Frenchman Took Luther’s ideas further Believed in the supreme authority of the scriptures Rejected the Catholic form of the Mass Rejected Christ’s real presence in the Eucharist Calvin advocated simple Church worship Predestination (only select few are saved)

18 A Strict Intolerant Theocracy Theocracy: complete integration of Church and state Geneva, Switzerland Passed strict laws Rigid adherence to moral principles Became intolerant of other religious beliefs

19 Henry VIII No son to succeed him Wanted a divorce Clement VII refused –Moral –Political

20 Church of England Developed a state sponsored church Required loyalty from the bishops Act of Supremacy: declared English monarch as head of the Church of England Very Catholic in theology Anglicans, Episcopalians

21 Church’s Response to Reformation Council of Trent *to bring Protestants and Catholics back together again *to state clearly the principal teachings of the Catholic Church Council of Trent (1545-1563) *Catholic reformation: traditional Catholic faith and practice restored

22 Trent Faith based on Scripture and Tradition Church(Magesterium) has final word on interpretation of the Bible Grace and Good works=salvation Seven sacraments Christ really present in the Eucharist Mass is a sacrifice

23 Trent (con’t) Celibacy for priests Bishop must live in his diocese Bishops must end abuse of indulgences Each diocese must set up a seminary to train priests Publishes a Catechism(summary of teachings), Breviary(prayer book for priests), Index(list of forbidden books) Missal(standardized prayers,rituals of the Mass)

24 New Orders of Religious formed Jesuits*Ignatius Loyola(1491-1556)*was a wounded soldier, read lives of the saints while recuperating, esp. Dominic and Francis * decided to become a ‘soldier for Christ’* studied for the priesthood* formed a religious Club at the University of Paris*wrote the Spiritual Exercises *founded the Society of Jesus*mission to teach and preach*missionaries throughout the world* special vow of obedience to the Pope

25 Teresa of Avila Carmelite nun 1562 opened a small convent in Avila to live a more simple, prayerful life than her original Carmelite convent*called the Discalced Carmelites(no shoes, only sandals)*was a mystic, author,reformer*wrote the Interior Castle

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