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1. In 1517, Luther posts his 95 theses on the church door at Wittenberg Cause – Tetzel was selling indulgences which gave the impression that people could.

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Presentation on theme: "1. In 1517, Luther posts his 95 theses on the church door at Wittenberg Cause – Tetzel was selling indulgences which gave the impression that people could."— Presentation transcript:

1 1. In 1517, Luther posts his 95 theses on the church door at Wittenberg Cause – Tetzel was selling indulgences which gave the impression that people could buy their way into Heaven Effect – aided by the printing press, the movement for religious reform spread beginning the Reformation

2 2. In 1520, Luther is excommunicated. In 1521, he is decared an outlaw and heretic. Cause – Martin Luther gained popularity and suggested that Christians drive the Pope from the Church by force Effect – Luther is sheltered in the castle of Prince Frederick the Wise, while there Luther translates New Testament into German

3 3. The German peasants revolt in Cause – peasants applied Luther’s talk of Christian freedom to society and demanded an end of serfdom Effect – the revolt horrified Luther, armies crushed the revolt. Many peasants rejected Luther’s religious leadership

4 4. The Peace of Ausburg is signed in Cause – Charles V went to war against Protestant princes to force them to remain Catholic Effect – War ends, princes agreed that each ruler would decide the religion of his state

5 5. The English Parliament approves the Act of Supremacy in 1534 Cause – King Henry VIII needed a male heir to the throne but Pope would not annul his marriage and grant a divorce Effect – This act named King Henry VIII, not the Pope, as the official head of England’s church

6 6. Parliament establishes the Anglican Church in Cause – Elizabeth I wanted England to return to Protestantism and asked Parliament to set up a national church Effect – established the Anglican Church as only legal church in England with Elizabeth, not pope, as its head. This church appealed to moderate Catholics and Protestants as a blend of the two religions.

7 Calvinism Founded by John Calvin People are sinful by nature Humans cannot earn salvation Believed in predestination (God has already chosen those to save)

8 Presbyterianism Each church governed by presbyters (elders) Brought Calvin’s ideas to Scotland

9 Anabaptists Baptized only those persons who were old enough to decide to be Christian Church and state should be separate (hello – US History!) Influenced the later Quakers and Baptists who split from the Anglican church

10 4. What were three major activities of the Jesuits? 1. founded schools throughout Europe 2. convert non-Christians to Catholicism by sending out missionaries 3. stop the spread of Protestantism

11 5 The Council of Trent 1. church interpretation of Bible was final 2. Christians need faith and good works for salvation 3. Bible and Church equally powerful authorities 4. Indulgences were valid expressions of faith but not if falsely selling

12 6. What role did Popes Paul III and IV play in reforming the Catholic Church? Paul III called the Council of Trent Paul IV carried out the decrees (beliefs)

13 7. What were some important effects of the Reformation? Protestant churches flourished New denominations (branches) developed. Can you name a few? Catholic church became more united as a result of the Counter Reformation (Catholic Reformation) Individual monarchs and states gained power at the expense of the church (nation states) Laid groundwork for Enlightenment in 1700’s

14 Counter Reformation (Catholic Reformation) Movement to help Catholics remain loyal and reform the Catholic church from within


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