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Chapter 10 John Tetzel Misunderstanding about the meaning of indulgences Claimed that indulgences granted salvation Luther believed that somewhere.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10 John Tetzel Misunderstanding about the meaning of indulgences Claimed that indulgences granted salvation Luther believed that somewhere."— Presentation transcript:


2 Chapter 10


4 John Tetzel Misunderstanding about the meaning of indulgences Claimed that indulgences granted salvation Luther believed that somewhere people had confused and forgotten the message of Jesus


6 Church leaders were secular leaders too A bishop who was a “prince of the Church” was also a prince in the real world They would live like any other prince would Pope sometimes put his secular rule above the spiritual welfare of the church

7 Wealthy families controlled the church Church leaders had no training

8 The plague No formal training Members of lower class Had unofficial families Superstitions Having mass said became viewed as more beneficial than going to mass

9 Religious communities of lay people formed Connects to Luther’s idea of priesthood of all believers

10 Protestants don’t like so much money being put into churches, sculptures and painting Protestants downplay human potential apart from God Humans are powerless/worthless without God

11 Local leaders were responsible for both religious and secular affairs Reformation could spread from one nation to the next one at a time

12 1492 Became a less closed society Open to the vast world

13 4% of Germany could read Bibles to base the Reformation on


15 1483-1546 Wittenberg, Germany Bible Scholar Catholic Monk Protestant Reformation in 1517 95 Theses Statements about sin and its forgiveness, the meaning of indulgences, and the popes power to grant

16 Bemoaned indulgences granted salvation People relied too heavily on external practices for salvation Infrequently going to Mass and confession

17 Many resented them for taking their money Luther: Questioned popes authority to grant indulgences Leo X was not concerned Bishops and Cardinals were They felt that Luther was questioning papal authority Luther writes letter to explain Cardinals call him to Rome

18 1. On Papal Authority Pope and his councils were not the final authority Scriptures were authoritative Pope had power but only given by humans Jesus gave Peter and Apostles 2. On Grace vs. Works People are saved solely by the grace of God Cannot earn salvation through works 3. On the Bible as the Sole Supreme Authority Opposed the Church’s view of Scripture and Tradition

19 1520 Hung the notice in towns Luther refused to recant—heretic Duke Fredrick “kidnapped” Translated Bible to German 10 months later returned to Wittenberg

20 Wanted to reform not divide He said… 2 possibly 3 sacraments Believed in the real presence of the Eucharist People didn’t need a go between with God Priesthood of all believers Priest could marry Reforms not innovations

21 Phillip Melanchthon 1530 Composed document Catholic and Lutheran followers agree and should compromise Catholic theologians condemned The Lutheran church emerged

22 Peasants took seriously the priesthood of believers and wanted equality Luther sided 1524-1525 Revolt Luther condemned violence 130,000 peasants died Nobles blamed Luther

23 Catholics were given right to practice everywhere Lutherans were restricted Protested— Protestants 1555 Peace of Augsburg Local ruler can choose religion Choose based on political reasons

24 John Calvin- Frenchman Took Luther’s ideas further Believed in the supreme authority of the scriptures Rejected the Catholic form of the Mass Rejected Christ’s real presence in the Eucharist Calvin advocated simple Church worship Wrote The Institutes of the Christian Religion

25 Theocracy: complete integration of Church and state Geneva, Switzerland Passed strict laws Rigid adherence to moral principles Became intolerant of other religious beliefs

26 All laws based on the bible, but people are not to interpret the bible for themselves, submit to elders Belief in predestination People are destined for either eternal damnation or eternal salvation Only select few are saved Can’t know who is saved, but a good indication is living a moral life and being a good member of society There are no accidents, God knows all and causes all to happen

27 No son to succeed him Wanted a divorce Clement VII refused Moral Political Sir Thomas More Refused to Break his silence Denounce the king Take the oath of loyalty

28 Developed a state sponsored church Required loyalty from the bishops Act of Supremacy: declared English monarch as head of the Church of England People were required to take an oath acknowledging kings supremacy Very Catholic in theology Anglicans, Episcopalians Puritans: movement in England that wanted to follow Calvinism Persecuted Founded Massachusetts Bay Colony

29 Catholic Counter-Reformation Or Catholic Reformation Or Counter Reformation

30 Called meetings between Catholics and Lutherans – broke down over meaning of the Eucharist Called a Council at Trent- 1545 -1563 Two purposes: Bring Protestants and Catholic together State clearly the principle teachings of the Church Lutherans refused to attend

31 Renewal of the Church founded by Jesus No essentials were rejected Popes, Cardinals, bishops and theologians What does it mean to be a good Catholic?

32 ResultsReason Scriptures Church has final word on Scriptural interpretation Faith based on Scripture and Tradition Luther: interpreted by the individual Scripture alone

33 Salvation based on grace and works Inspired by grace Calvin: Predestination Luther: grace alone 7 Sacraments, real presence of Christ in the Eucharist Protestants found only Baptism and Eucharist in scriptures

34 Original Sin: passed through birth, therefore, infants must be baptized Calvin and Anabaptists said there is no original sin and practiced adult baptism Justified by grace, justice and mercy of God, exemplified by good works Luther said we are justified by faith alone

35 Mass –Latin –Sacrifice Transubstantiation Reformers denied Services were in the language of the people Communion –Both forms not received –Children could receive People shared cup Calvin: children were not able to receive Devotional Practices –Honoring Mary, saints, Rosary, holy water, statues, relics Luther and others did away with saints and other devotionals

36 Bishops and priests: Live in diocese, eliminate abuses surrounding indulgences, seminaries, celibacy Corruption of priests and bishops, poorly trained priests New books: Index Catechism Brievary Missal Stop Catholics from reading books that go against Catholic teaching, Clarify beliefs, priest corruption, standardize Mass

37 Reform – not unity – too late Positive outcomes Needed reforms Religious orders – rules New religious orders to help reform Standardized practices and well defined discipline – guided church to Vatican II

38 Why are institutions hard to change? Why did some people in the church at the time of the Reformation oppose all reforms? To the understand the difficulty of making reforms, list a number of aspects of the U.S. government that people constantly say need changing. Why has so little been done to reform these matters? Does your community have any matters that need reform? What complicates the process for reform.

39 Reflection: How is the Catholic Reformation different from the Protestant Reformation? Which method of change and decision making do you see as more effective?

40 Ignatius Loyola – Jesuits Worked to stop the spread of reformation through preaching and teaching Teresa of Avila – reformed Discalced Carmelite Sisters through simplicity and good humor

41 “Soldier for Christ” Injured Only life according to the Gospels had meaning Pilgrimage to Holy Land Became priest Develops a process for deep conversion- Spiritual Exercises Started Jesuits-15 years of study Started universities and seminaries Good Catholic education would ensure loyalty to the Church

42 Carmelite nun Felt monastery lacked quiet focus on God Started St. Joseph’s Live simply, pray regularly, meditate Discalced-without shoes Called to found all over Spain Good sense of humor Interior Castle: in the center of every person’s soul is God

43 Need for reform is ongoing – though guided by the Holy Spirit – still a human institution Still criticism from within Still silencing critics Ecumenical dialogue since Vatican II –Catholics, Lutherans and Anglicans are resolving many differences

44 Reaffirmed teachings and disciplines Teaching Scripture and Tradition Church has final word on scripture interpretation Salvation based on grace and works 7 sacraments Transubstantiation Mass is a sacrifice Discipline Celibacy Eliminate indulgence abuse Seminaries New books

45 John Tetzel—Dominican friar famous for selling indulgences WS from video Quiz from Section 2 WS on Council of Trent Read 208-211




49 Nationalism and politics today Council of Trent – shaped discipline and practice for 400 years; innovation and ongoing renewal is difficult

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