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WHAP Unit 2: Classical Era, 500 BCE to 500 CE

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1 WHAP Unit 2: Classical Era, 500 BCE to 500 CE
Chapter 5, Eurasian Cultural Traditions. Big Picture Question #2 “Is a secular outlook on the world an essentially modern phenomenon, or does it have precedents in the classical era?”

2 “Is a secular outlook on the world an essentially modern phenomenon, or does it have precedents in the classical era?” The philosophical systems of both China and Greece are central to any possible answers. China: Legalism Greece: Greek Rational Thought

3 Essential Understanding
How did the development of religious traditions provided a bond among the people and an ethical code to live by? How and why did belief systems and cultural traditions spread to new areas? How did the development of religious traditions affect social and gender roles, and artistic expression?

4 What is the purpose of religion
What is the purpose of religion? Consider spiritual and practical purposes.

5 Greco-Roman Philosophy
Polytheistic: Greek and Roman gods. People were more interested in the gods for what they could do for them… not as a means to higher planes of spirituality.

6 Dissatisfaction with the gods…
Lacked spiritual passion which led to the “mystery” religions from the Middle East sweeping through the Greco-Roman world. Some, mainly the upper classes, were not satisfied intellectually by the Greco-Roman religion. Desired a systematic approach to nature and human society. What does this desire lead to?

7 Greco-Roman philosophy and science.
While Greco-Roman religion promoted political loyalty, it did not provide a basis for ethical behavior. Enter – “The Philosophers”, logic and reason, and empirical observation.

8 Greco-Roman Philosophers
Greek: Socrates, Plato, Aristotle. Hellenistic (Age of Allexander): the Stoics Roman: Cicero

9 The Cultural Tradition of Classical Greece
Greek intellectuals abandoned mythological framework world is a physical reality governed by natural laws humans can understand those laws human reason can work out a system for ethical life Socrates of Athens (469–399 B.C.E.) argument, logic, questioning of received wisdom constant questioning of assumptions conflict with city authorities over accused of corrupting the youth, Athenian democracy executed This is Socrates prison, the place who the great greek philosopher died after he drank hemlock at 399 B.C.E.



12 The Cultural Tradition of Classical Greece
Socrates is remembered chiefly as a philosopher and the teacher of Plato, but he was also a citizen of Athens, served the military as a hoplite during the Peloponnesian War, where he remained calm while most around him were in a panic participated in the Athenian democratic Council of the 500 Earliest classical Greek thinkers applied rational questioning to understand human behavior Herodotus: Grecco-Persian War - Historian “Father of History (Lies)” Plato: (429–348 B.C.E.) outlined design for a good society (Republic) led by a “philosopher-king” Aristotle: (384–322 B.C.E.) Became a teacher to Alexander of Macedonia (who became Alexander the Great)

13 Socrates “The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing.”
“The unexamined life is not worth living.” “Know thyself.” Power of human thoughts. Socratic Approach

14 YouTube: Horrible Histories: “I'm a Greek”

15 Socrates... Plato... Aristotle... A Student of Socrates
A sculptor, whose true love was Philosophy Taught for no pay. Created the Socratic Method – questions and answers Plato... A Student of Socrates The Greatest Philosopher of Western Civilization Unlike Socrates, he wrote down his thinking Aristotle... A student of Plato Wide ranging interests including ethics, logic, politics, poetry, astronomy, geology, biology, and physics. Taught Alexander the Great...

16 Aristotle and Cicero “ A happy life consists of tranquility of mind.” Cicero “Patience is bitter, but its fruit is sweet.” Aristotle Stress the importance of moderation and balance in human behavior.

17 Stoicism “Wherever I go, it will be well with me.”
"Freedom is secured not by the fulfilling of one's desires, but by the removal of desire.“ "No man is free who is not master of himself." Self-control, self-mastery….the ability to harness one’s desires instead of them controlling you.

18 “Is a secular outlook on the world an essentially modern phenomenon, or does it have precedents in the classical era?” The thrust of Confucian teaching was distinctly this-worldly and practical. Confucianism was primarily concerned with human relationships, with effective government, and with social harmony.

19 “Is a secular outlook on the world an essentially modern phenomenon, or does it have precedents in the classical era?” The Confucian Answer Confucius (551–479 B.C.E.) was an educated, ambitious aristocrat spent much of life looking for a political position to put his ideas into practice Confucius’s ideas had enormous impact on China and the rest of East Asia his teachings were collected by students as the Analects main principle: the moral example of superiors is the answer to disorder society consists of unequal relationships duty of the superior member to be sincere and benevolent will inspire deference & obedience from the inferior member humans have capacity for improvement: education family = model for political life, with focus on filial piety (honoring ones ancestors & parents) defined role of women as being humble, serving husbands

20 “Is a secular outlook on the world an essentially modern phenomenon, or does it have precedents in the classical era?” Greek thought, with its emphasis on argument and logic, relentless questioning of received wisdom, confidence in human reason, and enthusiasm for puzzling out the world without much reference to the gods, also provides a precedent for modern secular outlooks on the world.

21 “Is a secular outlook on the world an essentially modern phenomenon, or does it have precedents in the classical era?” In China, Legalism possessed several features of a modern secular political philosophy in its reliance on law and the enforcement of law to secure a stable society. The first emperor of China backed Legalist methods, rather than Confucianist, in a rather ruthless way.

22 China and the Search for Order
“Is a secular outlook on the world an essentially modern phenomenon, or does it have precedents in the classical era?” China and the Search for Order China had a state-building tradition that went back to around 2000 B.C.E. Mandate of Heaven philosophy was established by 1122 B.C.E. (foundation of the Zhou dynasty) Breakdown into the chaos of the “Age of Warring States” (403–221 B.C.E.) The Legalist Answer Han Feizi was a leading Legalist philosopher Strict rules, clearly defined and strictly enforced, are the answer to disorder Pessimistic view of human nature; only the state can act in people’s long-term interest Promotion of farmers and soldiers, who performed the only essential functions in society Legalism inspired the Qin dynasty reunification of China

23 Confucianism Started by Confucius ( BCE) during the Warring States Period in China Offers solutions to the problems plaguing China Focus on life rather than the afterlife Does not advocate a specific deity Emphasizes worship of ancestors Drawing of Confucius

24 Basic Beliefs of Confucianism
Emphasizes li the “rituals” of everyday life Goal is to promote harmony on Earth through relationships Five Relationships Filial Piety Education Dacheng Temple in Confucius’ hometown of Qufu in China.

25 Sayings from The Analects
Knowing what he knows and knowing what he doesn’t know, is characteristics of the person who knows. Making a mistake and not correcting it, is making another mistake. The superior man blames himself; the inferior man blames others. To go too far is as wrong as to fall short.

26 Social Impact of Confucianism
Becomes foundation of Chinese government Reinforced importance of patriarchal relationships Reinforced family as the center of Chinese society Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Singapore are influenced by Confucian ethic Family altar in Malaysian Chinese home. Family is inviting ancestors to partake in the Hungary Ghost festival

27 Confucianism and gender roles
How did the concept of “filial piety” influence gender roles? filial piety: basically describes the correct way to act towards one's parents.  Filial piety consists of several factors; the main ideas include loving one's parents, being respectful, polite, considerate, loyal, helpful, dutiful, and obedient.

28 Daoism (Taoism) Founded by Laozi (6th cent. BCE?) during the Warring States Period Everything revolves around the Dao (the way) Goal: Create societal harmony by living according to the natural laws of the universe Wu Wei “without action”

29 Impact of Daoism Encourages respect for nature
Heavily influenced Chinese art and literature Landscape paintings Yoga and meditation Hygiene and cleanliness Medicine Balance between Yin (feminine, dark) and Yang (masculine, light)

30 Daoist Influence on Chinese Culture: Medical theory and Practices
All of the following have their origins in Daoism. Acupuncture Herbal Medicine Massage Therapy

31 The Dao De Jing The basic text of Daoism.
In Chinese, it means The Classic in the Way and Its Power. “Those who speak know nothing: Those who know are silent.” These words, I am told, Were spoken by Laozi. If we are to believe that Laozi, Was himself one who knew, How is it that he wrote a book, Of five thousand words?

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