Presentation on theme: "WHAP Unit 2: Classical Era, 500 BCE to 500 CE"— Presentation transcript:
1WHAP Unit 2: Classical Era, 500 BCE to 500 CE Chapter 5, Eurasian Cultural Traditions. Big Picture Question #2 “Is a secular outlook on the world an essentially modern phenomenon, or does it have precedents in the classical era?”
2“Is a secular outlook on the world an essentially modern phenomenon, or does it have precedents in the classical era?”The philosophical systems of both China and Greece are central to any possible answers.China: LegalismGreece: Greek Rational Thought
3Essential Understanding How did the development of religious traditions provided a bond among the people and an ethical code to live by?How and why did belief systems and cultural traditions spread to new areas?How did the development of religious traditions affect social and gender roles, and artistic expression?
4What is the purpose of religion What is the purpose of religion? Consider spiritual and practical purposes.
5Greco-Roman Philosophy Polytheistic: Greek and Roman gods.People were more interested in the gods for what they could do for them… not as a means to higher planes of spirituality.
6Dissatisfaction with the gods… Lacked spiritual passion which led to the “mystery” religions from the Middle East sweeping through the Greco-Roman world.Some, mainly the upper classes, were not satisfied intellectually by the Greco-Roman religion.Desired a systematic approach to nature and human society.What does this desire lead to?
7Greco-Roman philosophy and science. While Greco-Roman religion promoted political loyalty, it did not provide a basis for ethical behavior.Enter – “The Philosophers”, logic and reason, and empirical observation.
8Greco-Roman Philosophers Greek: Socrates, Plato, Aristotle.Hellenistic (Age of Allexander): the StoicsRoman: Cicero
9The Cultural Tradition of Classical Greece Greek intellectuals abandoned mythological frameworkworld is a physical reality governed by natural lawshumans can understand those lawshuman reason can work out a system for ethical lifeSocrates of Athens (469–399 B.C.E.)argument, logic, questioning of received wisdomconstant questioning of assumptionsconflict with city authorities overaccused of corrupting the youth, Athenian democracyexecutedThis is Socrates prison, the place who the great greek philosopher died after he drank hemlock at 399 B.C.E.
12The Cultural Tradition of Classical Greece Socrates is remembered chiefly as a philosopher and the teacher of Plato, but he was also acitizen of Athens,served the military as a hoplite during the Peloponnesian War, where he remained calm while most around him were in a panicparticipated in the Athenian democratic Council of the 500Earliest classical Greek thinkers applied rational questioning to understand human behaviorHerodotus: Grecco-Persian War - Historian “Father of History (Lies)”Plato: (429–348 B.C.E.) outlined design for a good society (Republic) led by a “philosopher-king”Aristotle: (384–322 B.C.E.) Became a teacher to Alexander of Macedonia (who became Alexander the Great)
13Socrates “The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing.” “The unexamined life is not worth living.”“Know thyself.”Power of human thoughts.Socratic Approach
15Socrates... Plato... Aristotle... A Student of Socrates A sculptor, whose true love was PhilosophyTaught for no pay.Created the Socratic Method – questions and answersPlato...A Student of SocratesThe Greatest Philosopher of Western CivilizationUnlike Socrates, he wrote down his thinkingAristotle...A student of PlatoWide ranging interests including ethics, logic, politics, poetry, astronomy, geology, biology, and physics.Taught Alexander the Great...
16Aristotle and Cicero“ A happy life consists of tranquility of mind.” Cicero“Patience is bitter, but its fruit is sweet.” AristotleStress the importance of moderation and balance in human behavior.
17Stoicism “Wherever I go, it will be well with me.” "Freedom is secured not by the fulfilling of one's desires, but by the removal of desire.“"No man is free who is not master of himself."Self-control, self-mastery….the ability to harness one’s desires instead of them controlling you.
18“Is a secular outlook on the world an essentially modern phenomenon, or does it have precedents in the classical era?”The thrust of Confucian teaching was distinctly this-worldly and practical.Confucianism was primarily concerned with human relationships, with effective government, and with social harmony.
19“Is a secular outlook on the world an essentially modern phenomenon, or does it have precedents in the classical era?”The Confucian AnswerConfucius (551–479 B.C.E.) was an educated, ambitious aristocratspent much of life looking for a political position to put his ideas into practiceConfucius’s ideas had enormous impact on China and the rest of East Asiahis teachings were collected by students as the Analectsmain principle: the moral example of superiors is the answer to disordersociety consists of unequal relationshipsduty of the superior member to be sincere and benevolentwill inspire deference & obedience from the inferior memberhumans have capacity for improvement: educationfamily = model for political life, with focus on filial piety (honoring ones ancestors & parents)defined role of women as being humble, serving husbands
20“Is a secular outlook on the world an essentially modern phenomenon, or does it have precedents in the classical era?”Greek thought, with its emphasis on argument and logic, relentless questioning of received wisdom, confidence in human reason, and enthusiasm for puzzling out the world without much reference to the gods, also provides a precedent for modern secular outlooks on the world.
21“Is a secular outlook on the world an essentially modern phenomenon, or does it have precedents in the classical era?”In China, Legalism possessed several features of a modern secular political philosophy in its reliance on law and the enforcement of law to secure a stable society.The first emperor of China backed Legalist methods, rather than Confucianist, in a rather ruthless way.
22China and the Search for Order “Is a secular outlook on the world an essentially modern phenomenon, or does it have precedents in the classical era?”China and the Search for OrderChina had a state-building tradition that went back to around 2000 B.C.E.Mandate of Heaven philosophy was established by 1122 B.C.E. (foundation of the Zhou dynasty)Breakdown into the chaos of the “Age of Warring States” (403–221 B.C.E.)The Legalist AnswerHan Feizi was a leading Legalist philosopherStrict rules, clearly defined and strictly enforced, are the answer to disorderPessimistic view of human nature; only the state can act in people’s long-term interestPromotion of farmers and soldiers, who performed the only essential functions in societyLegalism inspired the Qin dynasty reunification of China
23ConfucianismStarted by Confucius ( BCE) during the Warring States Period in ChinaOffers solutions to the problems plaguing ChinaFocus on life rather than the afterlifeDoes not advocate a specific deityEmphasizes worship of ancestorsDrawing of Confucius
24Basic Beliefs of Confucianism Emphasizes lithe “rituals” of everyday lifeGoal is to promote harmony on Earth through relationshipsFive RelationshipsFilial PietyEducationDacheng Temple in Confucius’ hometown of Qufu in China.
25Sayings from The Analects Knowing what he knows and knowing what he doesn’t know, is characteristics of the person who knows.Making a mistake and not correcting it, is making another mistake.The superior man blames himself; the inferior man blames others.To go too far is as wrong as to fall short.
26Social Impact of Confucianism Becomes foundation of Chinese governmentReinforced importance of patriarchal relationshipsReinforced family as the center of Chinese societyJapan, Korea, Taiwan, Singapore are influenced by Confucian ethicFamily altar in Malaysian Chinese home. Family is inviting ancestors to partake in the Hungary Ghost festival
27Confucianism and gender roles How did the concept of “filial piety” influence gender roles?filial piety: basically describes the correct way to act towards one's parents. Filial piety consists of several factors; the main ideas include loving one's parents, being respectful, polite, considerate, loyal, helpful, dutiful, and obedient.
28Daoism (Taoism)Founded by Laozi (6th cent. BCE?) during the Warring States PeriodEverything revolves around the Dao (the way)Goal: Create societal harmony by living according to the natural laws of the universeWu Wei “without action”
29Impact of Daoism Encourages respect for nature Heavily influenced Chinese art and literatureLandscape paintingsYoga and meditationHygiene and cleanlinessMedicineBalance between Yin (feminine, dark) and Yang (masculine, light)
30Daoist Influence on Chinese Culture: Medical theory and Practices All of the following have their origins in Daoism.AcupunctureHerbal MedicineMassage Therapy
31The Dao De Jing The basic text of Daoism. In Chinese, it means The Classic in the Way and Its Power.“Those who speak know nothing: Those who know are silent.” These words, I am told, Were spoken by Laozi. If we are to believe that Laozi, Was himself one who knew, How is it that he wrote a book, Of five thousand words?