Presentation on theme: "Classical China Review. Political China’s earliest governments were dynasties. What is a dynasty? The first civilizations emerged on the Huang He River."— Presentation transcript:
Political China’s earliest governments were dynasties. What is a dynasty? The first civilizations emerged on the Huang He River around 2000 BCE. Hereditary Rule The ruler’s son became the ruler after the ruler died. Ruling power stayed in the family.
What were the four ancient dynasties of China in order? Shang Zhou Qin Han
What was the Mandate of Heaven? Chinese rulers were believed to have been appointed by Divine powers but they only ruled as long as their rule was Just. Natural disasters, famines and economic problems would be considered signs that the rulers had lost the Mandate of Heaven
Feudalism: A government system in which regional landowners grant land to knights or warriors in exchange for loyalty and protection. During the last 500 years of Zhou rule, regional rulers were constantly at war with each other. This period is called the Era of Warring States. Political Zhou Dynasty
Who was Qin Shi Huang Di? The First Emperor to unite China ending feudal rule of the Zhou dynasty. China is named after the Qin Dynasty. What political philosophy did he adopt to ensure social order? Legalism – Harsh Punishments and strict rules Qin Dynasty He also burned books of confucianism and began Building the Great Wall of China. Why?
The Han Dynasty - 202 BCE to 220 CE. Politically- Centralized power Ended legalism, softened punishments lowered taxes Brought peace and stability back to China which means that the Han rulers had….. THE MANDATE OF HEAVEN Liu Bang, first Han emperor who was a peasant When Qin Shi Huangdi died, the people revolted and overthrew his son. The Han Dynasty began
The Han Dynasty lasted over 400 years, from 202 BCE to 220 CE. Its legacy: Politically- Centralized power Ended legalism, softened punishments lowered taxes - What do you remember about the three Chinese philosophies? Han rulers adopted Confucianism as a philosophy and implemented a Civil Service Exam
Government jobs based on merit rather than wealth or loyalty to the emperor. Establishment of an education System. A civil service is a system of hiring government workers based on their knowledge of Confucian principles. What was the effect of the civil service exam?
What were Characteristics of Confucianism And what was its goal? Respect for the five relationships Code of Politeness Belief that humans are good, not bad Emphasis on Education Confucianism was intended to bring social order to China Which Dynasty adopted Confucianism?The Han Dynasty What was the book of Confucius’ ideas called? The Analects Confucius
What were Characteristics of Daoism? The Government doing as little as necessary. People acting in harmony with nature. Humility, simple life, and peace. People should not draw attention to themselves because it is not natural. The Yin and the Yang represent opposite forces and are Important for balance in life. Laozi
Characteristics of Legalism People are selfish and greedy Governments must use harsh punishments to enforce rules
“ The clouds will guide us in our quest for understanding” Which philosophy: Confucianism, Daoism or Legalism: “Each separate being in the universe returns to the common source. Returning to the Source is serenity.” “ Being a good son, friendly to his brothers, a man can exert influence upon government.” “Rulers should have virtue and his subjects will respect him.” “Those write books that are against my laws will disappear.”
What was the earliest religion of China? Ancestor Worship. How would the Ancient Chinese speak with their ancestors? Oracle Bones
Religion Religious beliefs: Ancestor worship: Deceased ancestors could bring good fortune or disaster. Through ancestors, gods were worshipped, especially a supreme god, Shang Di. The Chinese consulted the gods using oracle bones.
What religion would later spread to China? Buddhism Who founded this religion? Siddhartha Gautama founded Buddhism in India/Nepal What are its central beliefs? Suffering is caused by desires for material things (Four Noble Truths) Eightfold Path Enlightenment can be reached by following the middle path Reincarnation
Chinese Culture From its earliest history, Chinese culture emphasized: Importance of family The group is more important than the individual Respect for elders is called ______________