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Grammar 3 Lecture One By: Eman Alkatheery TYPES OF SENTENCES Eman Al-Katheery
What is a Clause? A group of words which contains at least a subject and a verb. For example: Biology is an interesting science. (I) Because the flight was cancelled, (D) That earth revolves around the sun (D) There are two kinds of clauses: Independent clause Dependent clause Eman Al-Katheery
Kinds of Clauses Independent Clause It contains a subject and a verb (and sometimes a complement). It expresses a complete thought, and can stand by itself. It is a simple sentence. Examples: The sun rose. Fresh water boils at 100 C. It has been raining all day. Eman Al-Katheery
Kinds of Clauses Dependent Clause It begins with a subordinator*; e.g., because, after, since, as, where, …….; or a relative pronoun; e.g., who, that, this, these, those …. It does not express a complete thought. It is also called a sentence fragment. A dependent clause is formed with a subordinator or a relative pronoun, a subject, and a verb. It needs an independent clause to complete its meaning. * Supplementary booklet: appendix C Eman Al-Katheery
Kinds of Clauses Examples: When the sun rose, If the drought continues for another year, When the phone rang, Although Maha won the prize, That earth revolves around the sun When Ahmad went to the library Who is wearing a red T-shirt Whose book is interesting Whether Ahmad passed the exam (or not) If there is a warranty on the computer Exercise: Add an independent clause to the preceding dependent clauses. Eman Al-Katheery
Types of Sentences What is a sentence? It is a group of words which is made of one or more clauses. It expresses a complete thought. There are four types of sentences in English: (P. 3) 1.Simple sentences 2.Compound sentences 3.Complex sentences 4.Compound/complex sentences Eman Al-Katheery
Simple Sentences It is the most basic type of a sentence. It is made of one independent clause, and expresses a complete thought. Example: We bought tickets for the football match. Run! Rami works in a post office. The grading system at our college should be abolished. Ducks swim. Eman Al-Katheery
Simple Sentences More examples: New York City is very cosmopolitan with people from different backgrounds and nationalities. Educational systems in the West teach students independence. Printed newspapers will become out of date in the next decade. However, online newspapers will be available for all readers. My English speaking class is made up of Chinese, Italian, and Vietnamese students. Eman Al-Katheery
Simple Sentences More examples: Both wind and sun are clean energy sources. Government and private agencies have spent millions to educate people about the effects of smoking. Alicia went home and cooked lunch. In the first two sentences, there is a compound subject. However, the two sentences are simple. The third sentence has one subject and two verbs ( compound verb). It is also a simple sentence. Eman Al-Katheery
Simple Sentences A simple sentence can be made of one or twenty words. The length of a sentence does not determine which type it is, since a simple sentence can use many modifiers. Lying exposed without its blanket of snow, the ice on the river melts quickly under the warm March sun. Eman Al-Katheery
Simple Sentences Simple sentences are connected with transitions* such as first, second, then, later, finally, however … Canada is a rich country. However, it has many poor people. * Supplementary booklet: appendix C
Compound Sentences (P. 4) It contains two or more independent clauses. They are joined in three ways. (supplementary booklet) Sarah went to school. independent clause Her sister went shopping. independent clause First method: (FAN BOYS, for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so) a coordinator ( coordinating conjunction) Sarah went to school, and her sister went shopping. Eman Al-Katheery
Compound Sentences Second method: a semicolon Sarah went to school; her sister went shopping. Third method: an adverbial conjunction Sarah went to school; however, her sister went shopping.
Compound Sentences Coordinating conjunctions: Method 1 (FANBOYS +,) P. 4) Independent clauses are joined by a coordinator in order to form a compound sentence. There are seven coordinators: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so. (FANBOYS).* There is a comma placed before the coordinator (unless the sentence is VERY short). Each coordinator has a meaning and the choice of a coordinator depends on the relationship between the two clauses. I wanted to buy a new bag, so I started to save my money. * Supplementary booklet: appendix C Eman Al-Katheery
Compound Sentences Example: Football is a popular game, and its fans shriek with excitement. Be quiet and listen! (SHORT, no comma) I have never visited Asia, nor have I visited Africa.* The little boy did not like to go to school, yet he went anyway. Tracy went to the market, but she forgot her money, so she went back home. *notice the structure of the second clause (word order (syntax) like a question not a statement). Eman Al-Katheery
Compound Sentences Semicolon: Method 2 (;) Two independent clauses are joined with a semicolon. No words or extra punctuation marks are needed. Example: Noura works in Riyadh; her husband works in Kharj. Eman Al-Katheery
Compound Sentences Examples: Three hundred guests attended his wedding; four attended his funeral. Motherhood causes many women to quit their jobs; others continue working despite having children to care for.
Compound Sentences Adverbial conjunction: (Method 3)* After the first independent clause, put a semicolon, an adverbial conjunction, and a comma. Then write the second clause. Each adverb has a meaning and the choice of an adverb depends on the relationship between the two clauses e.g. consequently, also, in addition, for instance, likewise, furthermore, in contrast……….. * Supplementary booklet: appendix C, Eman Al-Katheery
Compound Sentences Examples: Method 3 (; + adverb. conj. +,) Players obey the rules; otherwise, they receive penalties. Football players are careful; however, they still get hurt often. We arrived early; consequently, we found a good place to sit. Tuitions at a community college are low; in contrast, tuitions at private schools are high. Eman Al-Katheery
Compound Sentences Compare: Simple vs. Compound Sentences Both wind and sun are clean energy sources. Government and private agencies have spent millions to educate people about the effect of smoking. Alicia went home and cooked lunch. Alicia cleaned the house, and her sister cooked lunch. Oprah Winfrey is a famous African-American, and she is often called the queen of TV shows.
Eman Al-Katheery Compound Sentences Both wind and sun are clean energy sources. Simple sentence with a compound subject Government and private agencies have spent millions to educate people about the effect of smoking. Simple sentence with a compound subject Alicia went home and cooked lunch. Simple sentence with a compound verb Alicia cleaned the house, and her sister cooked lunch. Compound sentence Oprah Winfrey is a famous African-American, and she is often called the queen of TV shows. Compound sentence
Eman Al-Katheery Coordinators We can use coordinators to combine clauses, phrases, verbs, and nouns. For example: Oprah Winfrey is a famous African-American, and she is often called the queen of TV shows. Ali is young but smart. Fatima and Sarah went shopping. The teacher spoke rapidly yet clearly. Alicia went home and cooked lunch.
Complex Sentences It has one or more dependent clauses (i.e. noun clauses, adverb clauses, and adjective clauses) joined to one independent clause by a subordinator or relative pronoun such as although, when, before, that, since, who, if whether… Although women in the USA could own property, they couldn't vote until 1920. Men who are not married are called bachelors. When you visit Seattle, you should bring a raincoat and umbrella. * Supplementary booklet: appendix C Eman Al-Katheery
Complex Sentences Dependent clauses begin with subordinators. Subordinators have an interesting effect on words in a sentence. A clause (S +V) without a subordinator can stand alone as a complete statement. I went to the store yesterday. When a subordinator is added, the statement seems incomplete. When I went to the store yesterday, Eman Al-Katheery
Complex Sentences The subordinating clause becomes dependent on something else to complete its meaning: When I went to the store yesterday, I saw an old friend. * I saw an old friend when I went to the store yesterday. * * Notice the punctuation.
Punctuating complex sentences The type of the dependent clause determines the way a sentence should be punctuated. Noun clauses: No punctuation marks are used to separate a noun clause from the independent clause. Example: I don’t believe that there is life on Mars. That there is a life on Mars is unbelievable. The assumption that there is life on Mars sounds silly. I don’t know when Sarah went to her house. Whether she is going to the party or not is not important. Eman Al-Katheery
Punctuating complex sentences Adverb clauses: 1. If the sentence begins with an independent clause no punctuation is needed to separate it from the dependent clause. Independent clause + dependent clause We will not go to the park if it rains. ( no punctuation marks) 2. If the sentence begins with a dependent clause a comma used to separate it from the independent clause. Dependent clause, independent clause If it rains, we will not go to the park.
Eman Al-Katheery Punctuating complex sentences Adjective clauses: Punctuation depends on the type of the adjective clause. 1. Restrictive clauses: No punctuation is needed. Men who are not married are called bachelors. 2. Nonrestrictive clauses: The adjective clause is written between two commas. Ahmad, who is a doctor, is a hard worker. I invited Ahmad,who is a doctor.
Eman Al-Katheery Complex Sentences When did Sarah go to her house? Question When Sarah went to her house Dependent Clause Did khalid go to the library? Question If khalid went to the library Dependent Clause Whether he went to the library (or not) Dependent Clause The man wears reading glasses. Statement Who wears reading glasses Dependent Clause
Eman Al-Katheery Complex sentences Examples: Scientists don’t know what causes autism. That there is a hole in the Ozone layer is well known. When Ali handed in his homework, he forgot to give the teacher the last page. The students are studying because they have a test tomorrow.
Eman Al-Katheery Complex sentences Examples: After they finished studying, Juan and Maria went shopping. An orphanage is a place where orphans live. My computer, which I bought last week, stopped working. We should ask when the bus arrives. I can’t remember if I locked the door.
Compound-Complex Sentences It has at least three clauses. Two of which are independent. Instead of joining two simple sentences, you combine a simple sentence with a complex one, or two complex sentences. Eman Al-Katheery
Compound-Complex Sentences Examples: The package arrived in the morning, but the courier left before I could check the content. I wanted to travel after I graduated from college; however, I had to work immediately. After I graduated from college, I wanted to travel, but I had to work immediately.
More Examples on all sentence types Mary hasn’t read the chapter, nor has she written the essay. Compound sentence Fred is antisocial, yet he has few friends. Compound sentence In rural areas of developing countries, women are often underfed, and they are also overworked. Compound sentence Listen to me! Simple sentence Eman Al-Katheery
More Examples on all sentence types In very poor countries, girls often suffer from malnutrition; in contrast, their brothers do not, for they are more valued than their sisters. Compound sentence Sarah’s eyes are always sparkling with joy; still, they hold a deep sadness. Compound sentence The professor said that a man’s lung is larger than a woman’s; as a result, men take fewer breaths per minute. Compound/ complex sentence Eman Al-Katheery
More Examples on all sentence types Leaving his country was a big sacrifice, yet it was a lifetime opportunity. Compound sentence We should give Ann a raise, or we should give her a vacation. Compound sentence We should give Ann a raise, or a vacation. Simple sentence Because Ahmad loved the idea of studying abroad, his parents encouraged him; in addition, his boss supported him. Compound/ complex sentence Eman Al-Katheery
More Examples on all sentence types After he arrived in New York, he was excited yet afraid. Complex sentence Ahmad calls his mother everyday; otherwise, she would think that there is something wrong. Compound/complex sentence The dinner was delicious; nevertheless, it was overpriced. Compound sentence Because the meal was expensive, we decided not to dine here again, yet we went there again. Compound/complex sentence Eman Al-Katheery
More Examples on all sentence types After we had lunch, we decided to go shopping, but Noura forgot her wallet, so we went back home. Compound/complex sentence When you visit Seattle, you should bring a raincoat and umbrella. Complex sentence My grandfather couldn’t read nor write, yet he was a wise person. Compound sentence I love my father though we disagree a lot because we are from different generations. Complex sentence Eman Al-Katheery
More Examples on all sentence types She took a physics class with the professor who won the Noble prize. Complex sentence My father teaches algebra, which I don’t enjoy. Complex sentence The subject that I really enjoy is mathematics. Complex sentence Since electricity is expensive, my mother buys energy-saving appliances, for she wants to save money and protect nature. Compound/ complex sentence Eman Al-Katheery
More Examples on all sentence types Men are more muscular than women; however, women often do the hardest physical labor because they are considered inferior to men. Compound/complex sentence He had never been away from his family, nor had he been out of Bahrain. Compound sentence Jasmine left New York to India, for she wanted to meet her family. Compound sentence In Canada, families whose incomes are low do not pay taxes. Complex sentence
Eman Al-Katheery REFRENCES: Mosaic 2, Grammar, Silver Edition. Patricia Werner and John Nelson. Understanding and Using English Grammar. Betty Azar. Focus on Grammar :an Integrated skills approach. Jay Maurer. Writing Academic English. Oshima. Grammar in Context. Elbaum.