Presentation on theme: "A good argument answers these questions:"— Presentation transcript:
1 A good argument answers these questions: Why am I provoked to make this argument?Why is this issue important right now?Why is this issue controversial?What are others saying on this issue?Who is on my side? What are their credentials?Who is on the other side? Why are they wrong?How are they right?Adapted from They Say/I Say: The Moves That Matter in Academic Writing.Gerald Graff and Kathy Birkenstein. Norton
3 A good argument embeds all or some of these components: Acknowledgement of the opposing sideQuotations and paraphrases (references to authority)Anecdotes (little stories)A combination of objective (academic) and subjective (emotional) languageRhetorical questionsFacts and figuresSummariesCause and effect statementsVariety of perspectives (I, we, you, he, she, they)
4 A good argument refers to all or some of the following values: Note: These are overlapping:Democratic Principles: Personal freedom, expression of individuality,promotion of democracy, the right to be left alone, civil liberties,honoring the pastSense of Community: Helping others, sharing resources,considering future generations; establishing sense of belonging;caring for loved onesDesire for safety and security: Protection against enemies, protection of resources,having sufficient food and shelter, avoiding and responding to naturaldisaster, maintaining healthEconomics: Maintaining sufficient resources for now and the future,protecting personal fortunes while offeringopportunities to everyoneBeauty, Pleasure, Convenience
5 Sentence Frames for Argumentation Use these frames at the outset of your argument to establish what others havebeen saying on this topic:In recent __________, we have been hearing a great deal about__________________________ by ______________________._______________________ has been in the news recentlybecause ________________________________________.
6 Sentence Frames for Argumentation Use this frames at the outset of your argument to introduce an ongoingdebate:In discussions of _____________, one controversial issue has been___________________________. People who believe____________claim that________________________________. On the other hand,those who believe _____________________________ assert that______________________________________________________.My own view is __________________________________________.
7 Sentence Frames for Argumentation Use this frame to establish common ground on a controversial issue:When it comes to the topic of ______________________, most of uswould agree that ____________________________. Where thisagreement ends, however, is on the question of _____________________.Whereas some are convinced that _______________________________.others maintain that___________________________________________.My own view is that____________________________________________.
8 Sentence Frames for Argumentation Use these frames as you acknowledge that the opposing side has a certaindegree to validity:While at one time it may have been true that__________________,we can now state that____________________________________.___________________ makes sense when he/she/they say________________________, but _____________________________________.Despite the validity of ______________________’s claim about ____________,he/she/they miss the mark when it comes to________________________because___________________________________________________.
9 Sentence Frames for Argumentation Use these frames to establish working definitions of key terms:For the purpose of this discussion, I will define _______________________as __________________________________________________________.Although you might think of ______________________as being justanother_________________________, I define it as________________________________________________________________________________________.
10 Sentence Frames for Argumentation Use these frames to establish or deny a comparison:_______________________ is like ___________________________.They both _______________________________________________.__________________________(s) may say that ___________________is like _______________________________, but the comparison isfalse because while _________________________________________is______________________________, it is not as ________________as they claim.
11 Sentence Frames for Argumentation Use these frames to establish the importance of this topic:______________ is important because__________________.We should care about______________because if_____________,then_________________________.Ultimately, what is at stake here is____________________________.My discussion of _________________ addresses thelarger matter of _____________________.
12 Sentence Frames for Argumentation Use these frames to trace the development of your own viewson the subject:I’ve always believed that____________________________________When I was a child, I used to think that______________________________,but/and now I realize that____________________________________________.At the same time that I believe____________________,I also believe__________________________________.After careful consideration and as a result of myexperience, I have/have not changed my mindabout__________________________________.
13 Sentence Frames for Argumentation Use these words and phrases to establish cause and effect:Because (of)_____________, _______________________.AccordinglyIf…then…henceit follows, thensincesothenthereforethusResultAs a result (of)resulting fromresulting inconsequence ofconsequentlyas a consequence
14 Sentence Frames for Argumentation Use these noun phrases to negatively characterize your opponents:those who disregard those who take a narrow viewpessimists people who live in the pastnaysayers people who are unawarethose who would have us believe those on the sidelinesthose who live only for the momenthardlinersUse these noun phrases to positively characterize your supporters:progressive thinkers prudent thinkersthose who think about proactive peoplethose who care about civic-minded peoplethose who know about serious peoplethose who understand people with regard foroptimists realists